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Y1 Fwong MCD Cell Path Mubarak > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (17)
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1

Define tumour?

Swelling, originally for inflammation

2

Define cancer?

uncontroled cell growth

3

define neoplasm?

new abnormal growth of a mass of tissue, the growth of which is virtually autonomous and exceeds that of normal tissues. The growth is uncoordinated and persists after the cessation of the stimuli that initiated the change

4

Name two basic components of a tumour?

Parenchyma- Proliferating neoplasmic cells

Supportive stroma

5

Name some features of an Benign tumour?

-Well differentiated
-Usually slow growing
-Rarely invade locally-cohesive,expansile,encapsulated mass
-Seldom metastasize

6

Name some features of a malignant tumour?

-Anaplasia-Complete lack of fifferentiation
-Rapid turnover- "chemo targets"
-Infiltrative margins
-metastasize (except 2 tumours)

7

List at which countries the following cancer types have the highest incidence/prevalence:
-stomach
- melanoma
- HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma)
- Oesophageal cancer

Stomach cancer higher (approx 7 times) in Japan compared with USA. Colon cancer much less in Japan

Melanoma much higher in NZ and Australia compared with Scandinavia.

HCC more common in Uganda- aflatoxin

High incidence of oesophageal cancer in China and Iran- nitrates in soil, abrasives in diet

8

List sime environamental agents that can cause cancer?

UV light

Occupational agents like asbestos, naphthyl amine and vinyl chloride, alcohol (liver cancers), smoking (lung, bladder cancer

9

List examples of cancers caused by infection?

HPV-Cervical Carcinoma
Heppatitis B and C- Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Helicobacter pylori-gastric carcinoma
EBV burkitts lymphoma

10

Name some factors that distinguish benign and malignant tumours?

-Differentiation and anaplasia
-rate of growth
-local invasion
-metastisis

11

identfy the principles that make a successful cancer screening? (factor that justify the appropriateness of using this screening)

Treatment available

Reliable prediction of tumour behaviour

Target population has enough people at risk to justify expense

Cost-effective and reliable screening tool

12

List the features of pathology which predict the prognosis in cancer?

Size of primary lesion
Spread to regional lymoh nodes
Presence of metastases

13

Name the main staging sytsem used in cancers?

TNM
-Size of Primary Lesion(T1-T4)
-Spread to Regional lymph nodes(N0,N1-N3)
-presence of metastases(M0,M1-M2)

14

Name the three catagories of carcinogens?

-Chemicals

-Radiation

-Microbial Agents

15

Name a cancer associated with ionising electromagnetic radiation?

luekemia and solid tumours can be caused by x rays

16

Name features of Grading of cancer?

-Histological
-high grade, low grade. Low grade= looks like normal tissue
-Based on the degree of differentiation and on the number of mitoses
-less useful than staging

17

Name the pathways in which cancers spread?

Lymphatic spread

Haematogenous

Body cavities seeding

Contiguous