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Y1 Fwong MCD Cell Path Mubarak > Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammation Deck (37)
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1

Define inflammation?

Reaction of living vascularised tissue to sub-lethal cellular injury. Evolutionary development to protect against infection and trauma.

2

Name the function of inflammation?

Remove cause of injury and initiate repair

3

Name the causes of inflammation?

Infection tissue destruction- mechanical trauma, chemical injury, radiation

4

Why are vascular changes in inflammation important?

Dilation and increased blood flow to injured area enables rapid delivery of inflmatory cells and mediators.

5

Name the local cardinal signs for Acute inflammation.

RUBOR – redness CALOR – heat TUMOR – swelling DOLOR – pain LOSS OF FUNCTION

6

What causes loss of function in acute inflammation?

Loss of function is due to swelling and pain

7

What are exudates?

What comes out of leaky capillaries fluid, cells, proteins including fibrin, antibodies etc. think of exudes

8

What is the function of exudate?

Fluid dilutes pathogen and allows soluble mediators to spread easier within the area

Fibrin from the exudate walls off pathogen to stop it spreading and gives inflammatory cells a substrate to hold onto

9

What does histamine lead to?

Vasodilation Increased vascular permeability

10

What is formed in an acute inflammation?

Exudate is formed

11

What is the main cell invoved in acute inflammation?

Neutrophils

12

In acute inflammation, what needs to occur for tissue to return back to normal?

Tissue cells need to contain cells that can regenerate to replace lost cells Little structural damage done- cells need a framewrok to build on

13

What happens if tissue loss is too great and cells unable to regenerate?

Replace normal tissue with fibirous scar tissue

14

What hinders repair?

•General

–POOR NUTRITION  - Require protein for collagen production, and energy for cell function.

–VITAMIN DEFICIENCY

Vitamin C – needed by fibroblasts to make collagen

Vitamin A - required for epithelial regeneration

–MINERAL DEFICIENCY eg. Zinc

–SUPPRESSED INFLAMMATION by steroids, old age, diabetes

•Local

–POOR BLOOD SUPPLY eg. ischaemic leg ulcers

–PERSISTENT FOREIGN BODY eg. splinter

–MOVEMENT e.g across a fracture site -> need for a cast.

15

Name the possible complications of repair?

•Keloid formation

–Excess collagen deposition (pic on right)

•Contractures

–Fibrous scar tissue contracts as it matures. If scarring occurs across a joint can cause poor joint mobility.

•Impaired organ function

–e.g fibrous scars in the myocardium after a heart attack.

16

Name the histological features of acute inflammation?

Nuetrophils predominate eosinophils and mast cells are there

17

What is chronic inflammation?

Inflammation of prolonged duration in which active inflammation, tissue destruction and attempts at repair occur simultaneously

18

What are the causes of chronic inflammation?

Persistent damage Persistent infection (HCV, TB) Prolonged exposure to toxic agent (uric acid) Autoimmunity (RA, SLE) Foreign body (splinter, silica)

19

Name the cells of chronic inflammation?

Macrophages Lymphocytes and plasma cells 

20

Name what can be formed in chronic inflammation?

granulation tissue

21

Histological features of Chronic inflmmation?

presence of granulation tissue, Macrophages Lymphocytes and nuetrophil exudate

22

What is granulomatous inflammation?

Particular form of chronic inflammation showing granuloma formation.

 

Granulomas are formed in an attempt to wall off pathogens too 

23

What is a granuloma?

Cluster of macrophages Involves specific immune reaction T cells

24

What are the causes of granulomatous inflammation?

Infection – TB, fungi Foreign material Reaction to tumours Immune diseases (sarcoid, Crohn’s)

25

How does the liver respond to chronic inflammation anywhere in the body?

The liver produces and releases increased amounts of serum amyloid A protein into the blood

 

this protein has roles in eg recruiting immune cells for inflammation etc. HOWEVER can lead to implications eg amyloidosis 

26

What are the harmful effect of inflammation?

Local damage:

-damage to local tissues/scarring

-can affect nearby tissues

 

SYstmeic:

•Can evolve into systemic inflammatory reaction and secondary multi-organ failure

–E.g. Septic shock

–Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis is when an abnormal protein called amyloid builds up in your tissues and organs. When it does, it affects their shape and how they work. Amyloidosis is a serious health problem that can lead to life-threatening organ failure.

27

What type of inflammation follows acute inflammation but can occasionally develop straight off?

Chronic inflammation

28

What are the main cell types for chronic inflammation?

Lymphocytes and Macrophages

29

State the differences between acute and chronic inflammation?

30

Name the differences between chronic and acute inflammation?