What is cell biology?
Study of how cells and their molecules function/mechanism
What is molecular biology?
Study of molecules in a cell e.g DNA, proteins
How can Cell Molecular biology benefit patients? (5)
- Study of biomarkers
- Translational Research
- Stratified Medicine
- Precision Medicine
Example of Translational Research?
Use of antibody to block TNF (tumour necrosis factor) as biological therapy for inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis etc.
What was timeline of innovations for development of RNA Vaccines applied to Covid?
From 1961 - Brenner, Jacobd, Watson, Meselson - mRNA Isolation
(Learn middle if necessary)
Covid mRNA Vaccine produced 2020.
What test was approved in Sept 2021 that could revolutionise cancer, and why (3)?
Galleri blood test.
- Tumour cells release cell free DNA into blood during necrosis or apoptosis.
- Test can detect mutations in these free DNA
- Early trial data suggests test can pick up up to 50 types of cancer including those difficult to detect such as Pancreatic cancer
What are biomarkers?
Naturally occurring biomolecule (e.g gene) /characteristic that can be used to identify pathological or physiological processes.
What are examples of bio-markers with corresponding processes? (2)
C-reactice Protein (CRP) - measures inflammation.
Anti-citrillunated Peptide Antibody - Used to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis
Why are biomarkers important? (4)
- Diagnose and treat diseases
- Monitor disease progression
- Predict Treatment response
- Prognosis (Low or high risk)
What is Pharmacogenomics? (2)
- The study of how gene variation affect an individuals response to a drug. This helps to tailor individualised medication.
- It does this by identifying patients at risk for toxicity or reduced response to therapy prior to treatment.
Example of Pharcogenomics? (4)
- Abacavir - A reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for treatment of HIV infection.
- 5% of patients develop immune-mediated hypersensitivity reaction due to mutation in Human leukocyte antigen B.
What is Stratified Medicine? (1)
The grouping of patients based on risk from treatment options based on disease.
Example of Stratification in diagnostics?
Use in Breast Cancer Patients.
PR+, ER+ (65-75%) - ER+ treated with Tamoxifen
HER2+ (15-20%) - Treated with Herceptin
Triple Negative (15%)
What is K-RAS protein mutation? (3)
Occurs in Colorectal Cancer.
- Intracellular Signalling protein becomes abnormally active in absence of growth factor being activated.
- This caused to the gene regulatory protein to be activated and transcript proteins, causing cell proliferation.
What medication is used to treat colon cancer?
Cetuximab - inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor.
Works for when K-RAS protein is working normally. It will not work for mutated K-RAS.
What is an advantage of screening via Stratified Medicine? (3)
- Avoids administering ineffective medication e.g in Cetuximab in case of K-RAS Mutation.
- This avoids unnecessary side effects 3. Saves costs to NHS.
What are CAR T cells?
CAR T - Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cell.
It is a reprogrammed version of T cells used in treatment of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children, and diffusion of large B-cell lymphoma in adults.
What is Precision Medicine?
Precision medicine identifies effective approach to an individual based on genetic, environmental and life style factors.