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Flashcards in Infection and Immunity Deck (10)
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1
Q

Major Historical Milestones:
When did the Black death and White death occur?

State name of Disease, pathogen, and time (3)

A

Black death - Yersinia Pestis, killed 1/3 of Europeans 16th-17th Century

White Plague - Tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis), killed 1:4 UK population in 18th and 19th Century

2
Q

Who proved that germs are linked to diseases? (2)

A

Robert Koch (Nobel Prize 1905)

  • Proved Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused TB
  • Proved Bacillus Anthracis caused Anthrax
3
Q

What are Koch’s Postulates? (4)

A
  1. A specific microorganism is always associated with a given disease.
  2. Microorganism can be isolated from sick animal and grown in culture in a lab.
  3. The cultured microbe will cause disease when inserted into healthy animal.
  4. The same type of microorganism can be isolated from the newly sick animal.
4
Q

What are bacteria? Give some examples (3)

A

Bacteria are small, single celled prokaryotic organisms. They divide by binary fission and may have flagella.

e.g S. aureus, E.coli, mycoplasma etc.

5
Q

What are viruses? (3)

A

Viruses are particles of DNA/RNA in a protein coat, may have a lipid capsule.

They are not living cells and can only replicated in living cells.

6
Q

What are fungal pathogens? Give Examples (3)

A

Eukaryotic Fungus that can cause disease.

  • Candida Species (albicans) Unicellular yeast and reproduce by budding.
  • Aspergillus Species (e.g Fumigatus). Multicellular mould that reproduce by spores.
7
Q

What are other examples of pathogens? (2)

A
  1. Protozoa - unicellular eukaryotic parasites e.g Plasmodium Falciparium (malaria)
  2. Helminths - unicellular eukaryotic parasites, normally worms e.g Loa loa (African eyeworm); Taenia Saginata (beef
8
Q

What is an Antigen? (1)

A

Any substance that makes the body produce an immune response

9
Q

What are the characteristics of the immune system? (3)

A
  1. It has memory
  2. It is antigen specific
  3. It is tolerant to things that are not harmful
10
Q

What are examples of when immune tolerance goes wrong?

A
Breakdown in tolerance leads to:
1. Allergy
2. Autoimmunity
Breakdown in immunity leads to:
3. Acquired or Genetic Immunodeficency