Principles Of Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Principles Of Skeletal System Deck (14)
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1
Q

When does Bone Development start in Embryo, and when does it end after being born?

What is the process called? (3)

A

Start - 8 weeks; Ends - 20 years

Process is Ossification

2
Q

What 2 ways can Ossification occur?

A
  • Intramembranous

- Endochondral

3
Q

How does Intramembranous Ossification Occur? (4)

What bones are formed this way?

A
  • Mineralisation of Mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue)
  • Cells divide and condense around capillary network. This starts at Primary ossification centre, grows rapidly and fuse together to form connective tissue.
  • Undifferentiated mesenchyme becomes bone marrow
  • Skull, mandible and clavicle
4
Q

How does Endochondral Ossification occur? (4)

A

In order of events in growth:

  • Through Osteogenesis (using cartilaginous template from mesenchyme) from Hyaline Cartilage.
  • Primary ossification centre develops inside bone where cells grow around capillary bed.
  • Blood vessels penetrate and grow inside bone. This forms Periosteum (outside layer) and Medullary cavity (vascularised inside of bone)
  • The Secondary ossification develops in Spongy bone layer and is pierced by blood vessels.
5
Q

What happens to Parts of child’s bone as growth occurs? (2)

A
  • Long bones lengthen

- Growth plates (epiphyseal plate) shorten and eventually disappear when fully grown

6
Q

What are the 4 cells Bone is comprised of? (4)

A
  • Osteoprogenitor cells
  • Osteoblasts
  • Osteocytes
  • Osteoclasts
7
Q

What 2 cells are involved in bone remodelling? (1)

A

Osteoblasts and osteoclasts

8
Q

What nutrients are necessary for bone development and maintenance? (5)

A
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Vitamin A - for bone remodelling
  • Vitamin C - for connective tissue
  • Vitamin D - for Calcium reabsorption
9
Q

What hormones regulates is Bone development. If it goes wrong what happens?

A

Controlled by Endocrine activity.
- Parathyroid hormone (calcium regulation)

If too much produced leads to Hyperparathyroidism.

  • Growth Hormone

If too much causes Gigantism/Acremagly
/too little produced can cause Restricted growth

10
Q

What is connective tissue surrounding bones?

What is connective tissue covering articulation points?

A
  • Periosteum

- Perichondrium

11
Q

What are parts of the Compact bone when viewed transversely? (4)

A
  • The lamellae concentric rings laid down by osteoblasts
  • Osteocytes (differentiated osteoblasts)
  • HAVERSIAN CANAL - contains neurovascular supply
  • Canaliculi - paths in lamallae rings for nutrients to travel to osteocytes
12
Q

Describe the Spongy bone (aka Trabecular bone, Cancellous bone) (3)

A
  • They are highly vascularised
  • Surrounded by Red Marrow
  • Have irregular bony plates called TRABECULAE
13
Q

What are the classifications of bones? (5)

A
Long bones
Short bones
Flat bones
Sesamoid bones
Irregular bones
14
Q

What are the types of joints in the body with 2 examples each (3)

A
  1. Synovial Joints - they permit movement as have joint capsule and synovial cavity e.g Knee, Hip
  2. Fibrous Joints - They are connected by collagen and do not permit movement e.g Sutures of skull
  3. Cartilaginous joints - Connected by cartilage to allow movement e.g Intervertebral disc, growth playes