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Embryonic Development > Cell Signaling > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Signaling Deck (18):
1

Cells in the embryo do not have a circulatory system to transport communication, so what do they have?

Local Mediators that include growth factors.

2

Ligands

signaling molecules latin (to bind)

3

Signal Transduction

responses to ligand binding, including second messengers

4

Three types of signal transduction

Diffusion, Signals in ECM when touching, and just simple touching

5

What do growth factors do?

encode proteins, short range, cells respond by dividing or differentiating

6

What is a kinase?

They catalyze the addition of phosphates

7

Cell Signaling: Ca2+ and IP3 Pathway

First messenger converts G protein to Phosphorylase C, which cleaves PIP2 into IP3 which activates Ca2+ channels in the endoplasmic reticulum to open, releasing calcium and signaling other cellular responses.

8

Which parts of signal transduction is necessary to memorize?

ligand, receptor, main signal intermediate, nuclear factor

9

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

Ligand - growth factor fibroblast growth factor FGF and epidermal growth factor EGF
Receptor: Tyrosine Kinase
Intermediate: Ras
Nucleus: active phosphorylated transcription factor

10

What can fibroblast growth factor FGF do?

Give long hair

11

Cell Signaling: TGF Beta Pathway

Ligand: growth factor (e.g: TGF beta and BMP)
Receptor: serine/threonine kinase
Intermediate: Smad
Nucleus: phosphorylated Smad for transcription or repression

12

What can TGF beta do?

Give cows huge muscles

13

Cell Signaling: Wnts

Ligand: Wnt
Receptor: Frizzled
Intermediate: B-catenin
Nucleus: B catenin and TCF

14

What is special about Wnts pathway?

It is an example of where the signaling stops a process that is usual, B catenin is no longer destroyed and can combine with TCF to change gene expression

15

Planar Cell Polarity (PCP)

Ligand: Wnt, or cell adhesion proteins
Receptor: Frizzled or Strabismus (van gogh)
Intermediate: Disheveled and friends
Effect: Changes in actin

16

Hedgehog

Ligand: Hedgehog
Receptor: Patched working with Smoothened
Intermediate: Cubitus Interruptus(Ci) or Gli (mammals)
Nucleus: Ci (repressor)-->Ci(activator)

17

Steroid Hormones/Retinoids

Ligand: Steroid hormone or retinoid
Receptor: Nuclear

18

Growth Factors have different effects at different:

concentrations