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Flashcards in Unit 1: Deck (84):
1

The Question of Differentiation

Since every cell in the body contains relatively the same genes, how can so many different cell types be generated

2

The Question of Morphogenesis

How can the cells in our body arise to functional structures?

3

Pattern Formation

Spatial organization of cells

4

Microsurgery

Putting cells in new situations, or even transplanting pieces of one cell to itself or others.

5

The Organizer

Spemann/Mangold

6

Which piece of the blastopore induces formation?

The Dorsal lip

7

Vogt

Created the concept of fate mapping

8

Germ layers (3)

Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm

9

Gametes

Sperm and egg

10

Blastomeres

small cells that make up a blastula

11

Gastrulation

When the blastula undergoes rapid cell rearrangement, formation of the three germ layers

12

Germ cells

cells set aside for reproductive information

13

Somatic cells

Non-germ cells

14

Life cycles are usually controlled by:

Environmental factors, such as seasons [temp]

15

Blastocoel

Fluid filled space in the animal hemisphere of the blastula to allow for extensive cell movement during gastrulation

16

Blastopore

Dimple on the embryo surface which marks the dorsal side. Cells entering will become the mesoderm

17

Notochord

rod of mesodermal cells most dorsal position to become nervous system

18

Neurula

Embryonic stage where notochord has formed

19

Somites

precursors to back muscles,spine, and dermis

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Comparative Embryology

How anatomy changes during development of different organisms

21

Evolutionary Embryology

How changes in development cause evolutionary change, and how ancestry affects the current organism

22

Teratology

Study of birth defects

23

Oviparity

birth from egg [amphibian]

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Viviparity

live birth[mammal]

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Ovoviviparity

birth from inside an egg[chick]

26

Ectoderm [2 tissues]

Skin, and brain/nervous system

27

Endoderm[2 tissues]

Digestive tract, and organs coating

28

Mesoderm[7 tissues]

Blood,heart,kidney,gonads,bones,muscles,connective tissues

29

Describe the Organizer experiment

One dorsal blastopore was transplanted to a new embryo which then contained two dorsal blastopore. Both areas started developing gastrulation and neurulas, notochords, and neural tubes, and eventually two organisms attached together.

30

Induction: Definition

The process by which one cell or tissue induces a specific reproducible differentiation in another tissue or cell.

31

Describe "Sufficiency" and how it does not have to be necessary.

Sufficiency means that an added element is enough to create the entire change, however, the element itself is not necessary to finish that change. The change could occur naturally without the added element. Example: Bill Gates vs. the Lottery. In order to be rich, you do not have to be Bill Gates, but being him would be sufficient.

32

Describe how "sufficiency" relates to functional redundancy. What does this mean for a cell?

Having components that are sufficient, but not necessary for a process allows for completion even when an element may fail, another is sufficient.

33

Describe "Necessity" and how it does not necessarily mean the element is sufficient.

An element may be needed to complete a task, but it doesn't mean that the element alone can complete the task. For example: Air and water. Air is necessary for survival, but air alone can also not guarantee survival. Water is also needed.

34

Does the Organizer experiment show that cells are Sufficient, or Necessary?

Sufficient. The cells alone put in a different situation created the same result without help.

35

Specification: Definition

The extent to which a cell is predestined to become a specific type for differentiation, or not.

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Autonomous Specification

A cell is predestined a long time ago, and has reproducible divisions. Associated with localized determinants

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Autonomous Differentiation Example

Poking off specific cells in Ascidians created mollusks of that cell type

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Conditional Specification

Late decisions, variable divisions, regulative development, interactions with neighboring cells determine differentiation

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The Organizer: Autonomous or Conditional Specification

Autonomous, because removed from a place, and still did the same thing.

40

Genomic Equivalence: Definition

Each somatic cell has the same chromosomes

41

Differential Gene Expression

Each cell has the capability to express the entire genome, but only a few are actually expressed.

42

Places of gene regulation

Nuclear RNA, messenger RNA, protein translation, choice of functional proteins within cell

43

Histone Methylation

Addition of negative charge to histones causes unraveling of DNA and allowing transcription

44

DNA Methylation

Stops transcription factors from binding

45

Chromosome puffs

in drosophila, all cells contained the same chromosomes, but only the puffed region [different in each cell] was being transcribed

46

Dolly the Sheep

Oocytes were denucleated, and nucleus of other sheep added. Implantation into surrogate mother, and successful birth

47

Histones

DNA wrapped stones within the chromosome chromatin complex

48

Describe the process of nuclear transfer

An egg's nucleus can be removed, and a different nucleus inserted into the egg with different DNA.

49

As the age of the nucleus increases, successful development ...

decreases

50

Why is Cloning so Rarely Successful?

LOS, Placental Defects,histones, epigenetic

51

Therapeutic Cloning

Using cells to create stem cells to differentiate

52

Reproductive Cloning

Cloning for human creation.

53

Chimeric Mixture

Splitting an embryo at its 8 cell stage or earlier and using multiple genomes

54

Totipotency

When a cell can differentiate into any other cell type

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Pluripotency

When a cell can differentiate into almost any other cell type

56

Stem cells are harvested from the ___ stage of the embryo

Blastocyst

57

When can stem cells not from a fetus be found?

Bone marrow, and the umbilical cord

58

What is compaction, and why is it an important embryo stage?

Compaction is when the 8 cell embryo compacts together. After this, it is not possible for the cells to have totipotency.

59

Watershed: Implantation Pro

Many embryos fail to implant. Since several will never become born, the embryo at this stage cannot be considered a human.

60

Watershed: Implantation Con

Under the right conditions, any embryo COULD implant, therefore the embryo at this stage is a human. Also, ex utero development is becoming increasingly possible.

61

Watershed: Twinning Pro

A blastula can split and become twins later. This split is the start of human individuation, not beforehand, therefore the human blastula is not an individualized human.

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Watershed: Twinning Con I

The process of twinning is not that there was once nothing, then suddenly two. There was ONE and now TWO, therefore, there was a complete individuated life in the blastula.

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Watershed: Twinning Con II

Cnidarians form asexual polyps on themselves. Was the initial cnidarian not a cnidarian?

64

Watershed: Neurulation Pro

The defining element of the human species is our advanced nervous system. Therefore the embryo is not a human until the neural system begins to form.

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Watershed: Neurulation Con

Under the right conditions, embryos WILL form the CNS. "human with potential" vs. "potential human"

66

Functionalist View

The functions of something define what it is.

67

Anti functionalist View

If you are only a human based on what you can function doing, then how do we consider those who are impaired, or infants, or the elderly?

68

Development is Continuous

The embryo will not articulate itself into any other species. Therefore it is a human. The human blastula is just what we all looked like at that stage of development.

69

Ontology

finding the essence of what something is

70

Ethics

What is the nature of good, and what is our responsibility towards it?

71

Deontological

Duty based, if the embryo is my neighbor, I have certain responsibilities toward it no matter how inherently useful it is

72

Consequentialist View:

maximize the good for all, even if a few must suffer

73

Intuitionism

Feels like

74

Commodification

Making something, such as the human life, into a commodity

75

Does ontology and ethics always overlap?

No, an example, is abortion. if you think that the fetus is a human life, however, the right of the woman supersedes the life of the unborn child.

76

Pragmatic Compromise

When the ethical obligations change due to extenuating circumstances, examples include ice babies. [ frozen embryos ]

77

How did Induced Pluripotency first come about?

Yamanaka factors [retroviral transfection] to create Pluripotency

78

Teratoma

Ovarian tumors that spontaneously differentiate cells within them , example hair.

79

How to test the abilities of a iPS

Place in Tetraploid cell that has not inner mass cells. If the embryo succeeds, then the iPS cells were indeed pluripotent.

80

Transdifferentiation

Direct reprogramming of cells instead of going through a pluripotent stem cell step

81

cDNA

complimentary DNA

82

How to find and mark specific parts of DNA

We can uses sequences complimentary to the ones we want as probes with dioxigenin as a place for something to bind to

83

How to find and mark specific proteins

Use a primary and secondary antibody

84

Indirect Immunostaining

Synthesize a piece of DNA with a GFP part on it that creates a fluorescent tail to the protein.