Cell Structure Flashcards Preview

Biology > Cell Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Structure Deck (60):
1

What is a cell?

The smallest structural unit of life capable of functioning and replicating independently

2

Name the parts of 5 parts of an animal cell?

Ribosomes, mitochondria, nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane

3

Name the 7 parts of a plant cell?

Ribosomes, mitochondria, chloroplast, vacuole, nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall

4

Function of the nucleus?

Holds cell DNA on chromosomes and controls activities of the cell

5

Function of the cytoplasm?

Where chemical reactions occur

6

Function of the mitochondria?

Site of respiration/energy release

7

Function of ribosomes?

Site of protein synthesis

8

Function of the cell membrane?

Controls what goes in and out of the cell

9

Function of the vacuole?

Contains cell sap and supports the cell

10

Function of chloroplasts?

Contains chlorophyll which absorbs light for photosynthesis

11

Function of the cell wall?

Strengthens and supports the cell

12

5 characteristics of a eukaryotic cell?

Has a nucleus, has membrane bound organelles, dna held on chromosomes in the nucleus, has a membrane present, cell wall if present is made of cellulose

13

5 characteristics of a prokaryotic cell?

No nucleus, circular loops of DNA within the cytoplasm, man be one or more small rings of DNA (plasmids),cell wall is present is made of murien

14

Which is bigger prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

Eukaryotic

15

How many times bigger is 1 order of magnitude?

10 times bigger

16

5 characteristics of a light microscope?

Can magnify up to 2000 times, relatively cheap, can magnify live objects, reliant on a light source, 2D image produced

17

6 characteristics of an electron microscope?

Expensive, higher magnification, more detailed image, magnify up to 2 million times, beams of electrons instead of light, 3D image produced

18

Equation for magnification?

Size of image = magnification x size of real object

19

How is a root hair cell adapted to its function?

Large surface area to absorb water

20

How is a ciliated epithelial cell adapted to its function?

Has many hair like structures which brush away mucus

21

How is a sperm cell adapted to its function?

Head is streamline and has a tail which helps it to swim to the egg

22

How is a palisade cell adapted to its function?

Has lots of chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis

23

How is a nerve cell adapted to its function?

Lots of dendrites make connections to other cells, long axon to carry impulses from one place to another

24

How is a red blood cell adapted to its function?

Large surface area for oxygen to pass through, haemoglobin joins to the oxygen

25

How is a xylem adapted to its function?

Waterproof walls make sure the plant does not fall over when the water is being carried from the roots to leaves

26

How is a phloem adapted to its function?

Companion cells keep it alive and provide the energy needed to transport food from the leaves to the rest of the plant

27

What is differentiation?

When organisms develop and cells become specialised for a particular function

28

What is a gene?

A shaker section of DNA which codes for a particular characteristic such as hair or eye colour

29

What is a gamete?

Sex cell

30

What is fertilisation?

Process of a sperm and egg meeting

31

What is a chromosome and how many do we have in our body cells?

A long strand of DNA wrapped up in a helical structure, 46 in our body cells

32

Whah is a zygote?

Fertilised egg cell

33

Is an XX chromosome male or female?

Female

34

Is an XY chromosome male or female?

Male

35

What is a stem cell?

An undifferentiated cell which is able to differentiate into specialised cell types, they can divide

36

Which two sources do stem cells commonly come from and where are they found?

Embryos formed in blastocyst phase of embryological development and adult bone marrow , found in different types of tissue

37

5 uses of stem cells?

To replace or rejuvenate damaged tissue, to make more specialised tissue which has been lost due to injury or disease, treat blood based diseases, test different drugs, prevent plants becoming extinct

38

Why is human embryonic stem cell research ethically and politically controversial?

It involves the destruction of human embryos

39

What type of cell is one which contains 23 pairs of chromosomes?

Diploid

40

Why do we need cell division? (3 reasons)

Allow growth, replace worn out cells, repair damaged tissue

41

What is diffusion?

The movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration

42

What is osmosis?

The overall movement of water through a partially permeable membrane from a region of high water concentration to low water concentration

43

What is active transport?

The movement of particles from a low concentration to high concentration

44

Which process needs carrier proteins in the cell membrane?

Active transport

45

What happens to the rate of diffusion if the temperature increases?

It increases

46

Define turgid

When water enters a plant cell and pushes on the cell wall causing it to swell

47

Define plasmolysed

When water leaves a plant cell and the cell contents shrink and the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall

48

Define partially permeable

A membrane which allows some substances to pass through but not others

49

Define hypertonic

Concentration of the solutes in the solution surrounding the cell is higher than inside the cell

50

Define hypotonic

Concentration if solutes surrounding the cell is lower than inside the cell (more water)

51

Define solvent

The liquid in which a substance dissolves

52

Define solute

The substance which dissolves in a liquid

53

Define haemolysis

When red blood cells gain water, swell and burst in a more dilute solution

54

Define crenation

When red blood cells lose water and shrink in a more concentrated solution

55

Define osmoregulation

Involving the kidneys ensures that the concentration of the blood stays about the same as the concentration of the cell contents in terms of water

56

Define isotonic

Contains a high concentration of water molecules

57

What happens to red blood cells in a hypotonic solution?

They gain water and swell becoming turgid

58

What happens to red blood cells in a hypertonic solution?

They shrink and become wrinkled

59

What is embryo screening?

A method where embryos from presumed chromosomally normal genetic parents are tested for abnormalities, involves removing a cell from an IVF embryo to test it before transferring it to the uterus

60

How are daughter cells produced?

A parent cell is resting then the chromosomes are replicated to make sister chromatids, chromosomes line up in the centre and spindle fibres pull them apart