Cells Flashcards Preview

Bio Chem. > Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells Deck (62):
1

Ribosomes are the cell's _______ factories.

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Ribosomes are the cell's  protein  factories.

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2

Define Isotonic

Concentration of solution and solutes are equal to concentration of solutes inside a cell.

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3

Whats a Eukatyote

has  DNA in nucleus, larger and more complex

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4

Name the parts of cytoplasm

  • Nucleus
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell Membrane

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5

Just look at the picture

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6

just look at the pic, cousin

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7

A Hypertonic solution has ____ concentration of solutes and _____ concentration of water than the inside of a cell.

A Hypertonic solution has higher concentration of solutes and lower concentration of water than the inside of a cell.

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8

Mitochondria takes___,____, _____and_____ and turns it into ____.

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takes oxygen, water, sugar, and protein and turns it into energy

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9

Describe Mitochondria

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  • Convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
  • All DNA in mitochondria come from Mom's.

HAS IT'S OWN DNA!

10

A cell wall's main function is to ____,______, and_____the cell.

A cell wall's main function is to support, shape and protect the cell.

11

Define Plasmolysis

When a cell shrinks.

(Water moves form inside cell→ solution)

12

Define a protein pump

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Type of transport protein that changes shape to move molecules which requires energy

13

Genetic DNA for, height, ethnicity, hair and eye color is found in the____.

Genetic DNA for, height, ethnicity, hair and eye color is found in the nucleus.

14

Describe a centriole

Located near the nucleus

Helps organize cell division

Not found in plant cells

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15

Whats the levels of organization?

Atoms →molecules →organelles →cells →tissues →organ →organ systems →organisms

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16

The ____ of proteins make you, you. No ribosomes =  no___ becuase of no_____.

The order of proteins make you, you. No ribosomes =  no life becuase of no proteins.

17

In a Hypertonic solution, water moves from the ____of a cell to the solution. The inside of the cell shrinks. (Plasmolysis)

In a Hypertonic solution, water moves from the inside of a cell to the solution. The inside of the cell shrinks. (Plasmolysis)

18

What is a cell wall made out of?

Cellulose

19

There are more_________ than __________ organisms

There are more unicell organisms than multicellular organisms

20

Whats an example of an Eukaryote cell?

An animal cell

has centrioles

many vacuoles

NO chloroplast

21

What is the Nuclear envelope made up of

2 membranes

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22

Describe Cell Specialization: Multicellular

  • Organisms made up of many cells
  • Depend on communication & cooperation amoung specialized cells
  • Cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks.

23

Describe a Ribosome

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  • Where proteins are assembled
  • Small particles of RNA & protein 
  • Follow coded instruction from nucleus.( instructions to make a protein is written on mRNA molecule in the nucleus)

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24

What do ALL cells have in common?

  • DNA
  • Ribosome
  • Cel membrance
  • Cytoplasm

25

just look at the picture

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26

Define Dynamic Equilibrium

Water moves equally in both directions & cell remains the same size. (equal concentration of solute and solution)

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27

Describe Stem Cells

Undifferented(blank) cells with potential to develop  into many different cell types that carry different functions.

 

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28

What is  a Passive Transport?

  • Cell uses no energy
  • molecules move randomly
  • molecules move from an area of high conentration to an area of low concentration 

29

Decribe a vauole, cousin.

  • Stores materials like water, salts proteins and carbohydrates
  • Plant cells have a single, large vauole
  • A vacuole is filled w/ liquid which makes the cell rigid so plants can support heavy stems, flowers & leafs. When the vacuole is low, the plant wilts

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30

Whats the cell theory?

All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic structure &; function for every living thing New cells are produced from old cells

31

Whats an example of a stem cell?

Stemcells found in embryos can turn into all type of cells in human body like the brain, bone, heart, skin, etc.

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32

Remeber this: Muscles uses pumps that goes against concentration!!!!!

...ok, cousin. You don't have to yell.

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33

Hey, heres a random picture of a neuron to make you feel better.

Thanks cuz, I needed that

I know you did

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34

Describe the Nucleus

  • Has pores to allow materials to move in and out of nucleus
  • Chromatin- which are "spread out" chromosomes- condense when cell divides
  • Nuclear Envelope(2 membranes)
  •  Nucleus- Assembly of ribosomes begins

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35

Describe Unicellular Cell Specialization

Sometimes a cell is the organism

Unicellular organisms are aka single celled organisms

Outnumber multicellular organisms

36

What is Cell Membrane?

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  • flexible structure that reguates what enters and leaves cell
  • like a fluis mosaic
  • Selectively Permeable- Some substances pass through and some dont

37

Define selectively permeable

When some substances can or can not pass through

38

just take time to look at this one

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39

Whats a Cell Wall

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Its main function is to SUPPORT, SHAPE, and PROTECT, the cell

lies outside cell membrane ( no brainer)

porous enough for water, O2, carbdon dioxide and certain other substances to pass through

Provides strength for plant to stand gainst force of gravity

nearly all wood is cell walls (lumber, paper)

40

In a Hypotonic solution, water moves from the solution to the ____of a cell. If this continues, it'll swell and bust open

In a Hypotonic solution, water moves from the solution to the inside of a cell. If this continues, it'll swell and bust open

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41

Whats the 8 characteristics of life?

  • Based on universal genetic code(DNA)
  • Grows and develops
  • Responds to environment
  • Reproduces
  • Maintains homeostasis(stable internal environment)
  • Obtains and uses materials an energy
  • As a group, changes over time
  • Made of cells

42

Describe  bacterial DNA

  • Chromatin consits of DNA bound to protien
  • When a cell divides, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes
  • genetic material that codes for protiens
  • plasmids are small circular pieces of DNA found in bateria 

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43

Name the parts of the Nucleus

  • Nuclear Pores
  • Chromatin
  • Nuclear Envelopes
  • Nucleus

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44

Define Exocytosis

Vesicle surroinding material fuses with cell membrane & expels material

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45

The neuclus contains nearly all of the _________.

The Neuclus contains nerally all of the cells DNA.

46

just take time to look at this one, okay? Okay. There you go. 

life is good now

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47

What is an Active Transport

  • cell uses energy
  • actively moves molecules to where they're needed
  • movement of molecules from an area of low-high concentration

48

In an Isotonic solution, water moves _____ in ____ directions & the cell remains the same size. (Dynamic Equilibrium)

In an Isotonic solution, water moves equally in both directions & the cell remains the same size. (Dynamic Equilibrium)

 

49

Just look at the pic cousin, take a load off.

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50

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51

Define Endocytosis

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Cell membrane enflods around a food particle 

52

What are the 3 types of cell trasports?

  1. Diffusion
  2. Facilitated→ diffusion w/ help of trasnport
  3. Osmosis→diffusion of water

53

Whats the 3 types of an Active Transport

  1. Protien Pumps
  2. Endocytosis
  3. Exocytosis

54

Whats an example of a Prokaryote

A Plant cell

A plant cell has chloroplast, cell wall, and a large vacuole

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55

Define hydrophilic

"Liking" water

56

What are the 3 types of Tonicity

  1. Hypotpnic
  2. Hypertonic
  3. Isotonic

57

A Hypotonoic solution has ________ concentration of solutes and _____ concentration of water than inside the cell.

A Hypotonoic solution has LOWER concentration of solutes and HIGHER concentration of water than inside the cell.

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58

Define hydrophobic

"Fearing" water

59

Define a Prokaryote

DNA not enclosed in nucleus 

Smaller & simpler

60

Describe Chloroplasts

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  • Capture the energy from sunlight & convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
  • CHLOROPLAST & MITOCHONDRIA CONTIAIN THEIR OWN GENETIC INFO. IN THE FORM OF SMALL DNA MOLECULES

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61

Everything that occurs on the ________ level, also occurs on the ______ level.

Everything that occurs on the organism level, also occurs on the cellular level.

62

What is cytoplasm?

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Material inside the cell membrane- not including the nucleus

(mainly composed of water, salts, and protein.)

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