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Flashcards in Cells Deck (44):
1

Cell Theory

All organisms consist of 1 or more cells, a cell is the basic unit unit of life. All cells come from pre-existing living cells

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What is consistent across all cells?

DNA replication, RNA guided protein synthesis, energy transfer and material exchange.

3

what are 4 common components across all cells?

Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA, ribosomes.

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Prokaryotes

Small cells with no nucleus and without distinct organelles.

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Eukaryotes

Larger more complex cells with nucleus and membrane bound organelles.

6

what limits the size that cells can be?

Larger cells have insufficient surface area to volume to allow adequate movement of waste out, nutrients in and information throughout.

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Cytosol

fluid within laced with cytoskeleton to provide the cell structure.

8

Nucleus

Secrion housing genetic material.

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Endocytosis

The process of transporting molecules into the cell using vesicles.

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Exocytosis

Process of exporting molecules out of the cell using vesicles.

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Cytoplasm

Fluid within cells that houses organelles.

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Chromosome

Body consisting of DNA and associated proteins with 2 short arms and 2 long feet.

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Centromere

the central section of a chromosome.

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Chromatid

1 arm of a chromosome.

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chromatin

The combination of DNA with proteins, makes up chromosomes.

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Euchromatin

Areas of lower DNA concentration where transcription actively occurs.

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Heterochromatin

Areas of higher DNA concentration where transcription does not occur.

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Mitochondria

The site of aerobic respiration, contains prokaryotic DNA and ribosomes.

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Cristae

A folded surface inside the mitochondria upon which ATP is generated.

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Ribosome

Not membrane bound, consist of 1 large unit and 1 small unit that clamp around mRNA to synthesize proteins.

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Polysomes

Groups of 3-30 ribosomes.

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

An organelle attached to the nuclear envelope that is studded with ribosomes and acts as the sight of protein synthesis.

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

An organelle attached to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum that is involved in lipid/steroid synthesis and drug detoxification.

24

The Golgi Complex

A flattened stack of single membrane bound sacs that process and package secretory proteins and lipids. it is also involved in complex polysaccharide and lysosome synthesis.

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Vesicle

Sac for packing and transporting substances between the golgi body the outside of the cell.

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Lysosome

single membrane bound sacs containing degrading enzymes like hydrase for the turnover of cellular contents.

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Peroxisomes

Single membrane bound sacs containing the means for breaking down hydrogen peroxide.

28

what are the differences between plant and animal cells?

Plant cells also contain a firm cell wall, a vacuole and plastids.

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Cell wall

A rigid body consisting of cellulose fibers and hardening substance.

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Plastids

Membrane bound organelles that contain DNA and develop into either leucoplasts, chromoplasts or chloroplasts.

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Leucoplasts

storage organelles that are classified as amyloplasts, elaioplasts and proteinoplasts.

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Amyloplasts

starch storing leucoplasts.

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Elaioplasts

fat storing leucoplasts

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proteinoplasts

protein storing leucoplasts

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chromoplasts

stores pigments associated with the colour of flowers and fruits

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Chloroplasts

Store green chlorophyll which is involved in photosynthesis

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Thylakoids

Flattened membranous sacs that make up chloroplasts

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Granum

Stacks of Thylakoids

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Strumule (singular Stroma)

Tubular connections between stacks for exchanging proteins

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Chlorophyll

light absorbing pigments in chloroplasts responsible for photosynthesis

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Carotenoids

light absorbing pigments in chloroplasts responsible for photosynthesis

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Xanthophylls

light absorbing pigments in chloroplasts responsible for photosynthesis

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Vacuole

30-80% of the cell, stores waste and maintains turgor pressure to prevent wilting

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Tonoplast

Single membrane surrounding the vacuole