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Flashcards in Cells and Transport Deck (22):
1

Keywords lol:
-nucleus
-cell membrane
-cytoplasm
-mitochondria
-ribosome
-ER
-Golgi
-cytoskeleton
-lysosome
-permanent vacuole
-chloroplast
-cell well
-organelle
-cell wall
-cell
-tissue
-organ
-organism
-organ system

Go look on Quizlet

2

nerve cells (neuron)

function + adaption

Transmission of nervous stimuli

-very long axon
-makes neurotransmitter
-myelin sheath (insulation)

3

ciliated cells

Cleaning of airways

-cilia that beats back and forth to move material
-e.g sweep mucus with trapped dust and bacteria

4

sperm cell

Fertilisation of egg

-tail for movement
-many mitochondria, respiration for energy
-genetic info (23 chromosomes)

5

egg cell

Fertilisation

-large
-contains food for developing embryo
-genetic info

6

red blood cell

Transport of O2

-haemoglobin which binds O2
-no nucleus (more space for hgb)

7

white blood cell

Destruction of pathogens

-some produce anti-bodies
-some change shape to engulf bacteria

8

muscle cell

Contraction

-long + flexible
-lots of mitochondria

9

fat cell

Store fat

10

rod and cone cell

Photoreception/ vision

-visual pigment that detects light
-many mitochondria
-synapse that transmits signals to optic nerve

11

skin cell

Protection/ heat regulation

-pigments to absorb uv
-hair for insulation

12

palisade cell
(plant)

Photosynthesis

-lots of chloroplast
-tightly packed, elongated

13

root hair cell
(plant)

Uptake of water and minerals

-root hair to increase SA
-large permanent vacuole
-close to xylem (H2O transport)

14

guard cell
(plant)

Control opening/ closing of stomata

-can take up/ release water by osmosis
-thickened cell wall

15

Diffusion

The movement of gases/dissolved molecules from an area of high to low concentration
(down a concentration gradient)

16

Osmosis

-effects on plant an animal cells

The movement of water molecule from an area of high to low concentration across a *selectively permeable * membrane

Plant cells:

1. Hypertonic solution : (high solute concentration)
Plasmolysed
-cytoplasm + vacuole shrink
-cell wall retains shape

2. Isotonic solution : (same solute concentration)
Flaccid

3. Hypotonic solution: (lower solute concentration)
Turgid
-cytoplasm + vacuole swells

Animal cells:
1. Hypertonic solution: Flaccid (cell shrinks)

2.Isotonic solution: Normal

3. Hypotonic solution: Lysed (cells swell and might burst)

17

What happens when there is an equal concentration of of molecules?

There is no net movement/ an equilibrium is reached

18

Factors affecting the rate of diffusion

1. Concentration gradient
greater the gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion

2. Diffusion distance
shorter the diffusion distance, the faster the rate of diffusion

3. Surface area
bigger SA, faster the rate of diffusion

4. Temperature
higher temp, faster rate of diffusion, molecules have more kinetic energy

19

SA/ V ratio and diffusion

-Bigger organisms have smaller SA/V ratio so diffusion takes longer

Large SA/V ratio:
loose heat
get rid of waste
takes up nutrients/O2

Small SA/V ratio:
retain heat

Organisms can increase SA by:
small
folded
long
flat

20

Passive Transport

Movement of molecules through cells membranes down a concentration gradient without the use of *energy*

1. Diffusion (CO2, O2)
2. Osmosis (water)
3. Facilitated diffusion
movement of molecules down a concentration gradient with the help of a *channel or carrier protein*
e.g glucose, amino acid, ions

21

Active Transport

Movement of molecules *against* a concentration gradient. This requires *ATP energy* and a *carrier protein *

22

Difference between animal and plant cells

Be able to draw/label

Animal: lysosome

Plant: cell wall, chloroplast, vacuole