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Flashcards in The Heart and Circulatory System Deck (21):
1

Vein

-brings ~deoxygenated~ blood from body to heart
-low pressure
-large lumen
-thin, elastic muscular wall
-has valves
- up to 2.5 cm

(pulmonary vein brings oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium)

2

Capillary

Small vessels between artery + vein to exchange O2 , CO2, nutrients, glucose, urea to cells
- low pressure
-red to dark red blood
-very small lumen, RBC travel in single file
- 10 1um (v small)

3

Artery

-take ~oxygenated~blood from from heart to body
-high blood pressure
-small lumen
-thick, elastic muscular wall (maintain high pressure)
-up to 1.5 cm in diameter

(pulmonary artery is where deoxygenated blood exits the heart and goes to lungs )

4

Blood plasma

55% : liquid part of blood
-90% water
-Glucose
-amino acid ps + mineral ions
-CO2 + urea
-proteins : antibodies, hormones
-carries heat around body

5

White blood cells

~phagocytes~ ingest pathogens
~lymphocytes~produce antibodies

6

Platelets

-exposure to air stimulates platelets to produce ~fibrin~
- fibrin forms net on wound to trap RBCs

7

Red blood cells adaptions

45%
Haemoglobin:
-haemoglobin + O2 Oxyhaemoglobin
-transports O2
No nucleus : more haemoglobin in each cell
Biconcave shape : large SA/V ratio + short diffusion distance
Thin membrane : short diffusion distance

8

Sickle cell anaemia

- Haemoglobin clump together to give RBC a sickle shape
- More vulnerable to infection

9

Iron deficiency anaemia

Blood doesn't carry enough O2
-tired and lack energy
-dizziness

10

Haemophilia

Blood unable to clot
-excessive bleeding
-unexplained bruises

11

Leukaemia

Too many WBC, not enough RBC
-weight loss
-fatigue
-chills/fever
-repeated infection

12

Circulatory system

To pump blood around the body

(Amoeba have a large SA/V ratio to get O2 from diffusion)

13

Double circulatory system


*Pulmonary circulation* transports blood to/from lungs to exchange O2 + CO2 with air

*Systemic circulation* transports blood to/from body to exchange O2 + CO2 with body cells

14

Heart rate

Beats per min

15

Stroke volume

Volume of blood pumped per beat

16

Describe the flow of blood through the heart

1.Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium by the vena cava from the body.
2. It moves down into the right ventricle and blood is pump out the heart through the pulmonary artery to the lungs to pick up O2 and get rid of CO2
3. Oxygenated blood enters left atrium by pulmonary verb and moves down to left ventricle
4. Blood pumped out to the body via the aorta

17

Label the heart

check it

18

Why do veins have valves?

To prevent the back flow of blood
(Watch-pocket valves)

19

Why do arteries have muscular walls?

Maintain high blood pressure

20

Why is injuring an artery more dangerous than a vein?

Blood in artery have higher pressure than veins. Cells won't be able to respire due to lack of O2

21

Why is no body cell more than 0.05 mm away from a capillary?

To allow faster diffusion of O2, CO2 and glucose