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Flashcards in Cells Part Two Deck (43):

What are the two types of White blood cells?



What is a phagocyte?

A type of cell within the body capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria and other small cells and particles.


What is a lymphocyte?

A form of small leucocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system.


What are three types of epithelial tissue?



What are the short term effects of Tar?

-Tar settles in the lining of airways and alveoli
-Increases diffusion distance of gasses
-Chemicals can cause allergic reactions
-Lumen of airways can narrow restricting air flow
-Paralyses cilia
-Mucus secreting cells enlarge- produce more mucus
-Increase risk of infection


What are the long term effects of Tar?

-Smokers cough
-Irritation of airways
-Damages lining of airways and alveoli
-Lining replaced by scar tissue
-Smooth muscles thickens, lumen narrows and air flow is permanently restricted


What are the diseases linked with smoking?

-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
-Chronic bronchitis


Your circulatory system is a closed system of vessels that carry the blood round the body. What direction do arteries and veins carry the blood?

-Arteries take blood away from the heart
-Veins take blood into the heart


Why are arteries able to stretch more and return to their closer original size than veins?

Arteries need to be able to stretch and recoil as blood is pumped through them. This is why arteries contain lots of muscle and elastic tissue. There is no pulse in the venous system, so veins do not extend as blood enters them.


What is Cardiovascular disease?

-Cardiovascular disease refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke.

- Cardiovascular disease is the biggest killer in the UK 32% of people die from cardiovascular disease.

-180 000 people die each year in the UK.


What is Atherosclerosis?

-Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries.

-The inner lining of the arteries can be damaged by high blood pressure and carbon monoxide.

-The damage is repaired by white blood cells, which also encourages the growth of smooth muscle and deposition of fatty substances such as cholesterol under the endothelium lining of the arteries (not on the surface). This is called atherosclerosis.


What causes Cardiovascular diseases?

The cholesterol deposits are called atheromas. Eventually the atheromas may build up and break through the inner endothelial lining of the artery. This forms a plaque in the lumen of the artery. This reduces the size of the artery and reduces the blood flow.


What are the risk factors of Cardiovascular disease?

-High blood pressure
-Blood cholesterol and diet


What are the names of the two proteins found in muscle?

Actin and myosin


What are the 3 muscle tissues?



What is a Cardiac muscle?

It is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium.


What is a Smooth muscle?

It is found in the walls of hollow organs like your intestines and stomach. They work automatically without you being aware of them. Smooth muscles are involved in many 'housekeeping' functions of the body.


What is a Skeletal muscle?

They are attached to your skeleton by strong, springy tendons or are directly connected to rough patches of bone. Skeletal muscles are under voluntary control, which means you consciously control what they do. Just about all body movement, from walking to nodding your head, is caused by skeletal muscle contraction.


What are Muscle fibres are made up of?

Smaller fibres called myofibrils.


What is the function of T-tubules?

They allow nerve messages into the muscle cells


What is the function of the Sarcoplasmic reticulum?

It is a specialized type of smooth ER that regulates the calcium ion concentration in the cytoplasm of striated muscle cells.


What is the function of the Sarcolemma?

The cell membrane controls what enters and exits the muscle cell


What is the function of the Mitochondria?

It produces ATP for muscle contractions


What are Myofibrils?

-Myofibril is the name given to cylindrical structures that extend along the complete length of each muscle cell.
-Each myofibril consists of two types of protein filaments.
-They are thin filaments and thick filaments. There are hundreds of myofibrils in each muscle fibre.
-Myofibrils are made from proteins called myofilaments, which enable contraction to take place.


What is the definition of ATP?

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP for short, is the energy currency of life. ATP is a high-energy molecule found in every cell. Its job is to store and supply the cell with needed energy.


What is the definition of Hydrolyse?

Break down (a compound) by chemical reaction with w


What is the definition of Anaerobic respiration?

Anaerobic respiration is a type of respiration that does not use oxygen. It is used when there is not enough oxygen for aerobic respiration.


What is the definition of Glycogen?

A substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide which forms glucose on hydrolysis.


What is the definition of Aerobic respiration?

Aerobic respiration is the release of energy from glucose or another organic substrate in the presence of Oxygen. Strictly speaking aerobic means in air, but it is the Oxygen in the air which is necessary for aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration is in the absence of air.


Slow twitch muscle fibres

More effective at using oxygen to generate energy slowly in the form of ATP, through aerobic respiration. This means that the muscles can contract and again and again over a long period of time eg in a marathon.


Fast twitch oxidative muscle fibres

Fast twitch oxidative muscle fibres
Have a similar structure to slow twitch muscle fibres. They contain many mitochondria, myoglobin and blood capillaries but they can hydrolyse (break down) ATP much more quickly and can contract quickly. These muscle fibres do not easily get fatigued.


What do Slow twitch muscles have?

-Less sarcoplasmic reticulum
-More mitochondria for sustained contractions
-More myoglobin
-Dense blood capillary network for a good supply of oxygen and glucose for aerobic respiration


What do Fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres have?

-Less myoglobin, fewer mitochondria and few blood capillaries.
-They contain large amounts of glycogen for anaerobic respiration (without oxygen).
-They contract rapidly but fatigue quickly.


What are the two types of fast twitch fibres?

-Fast twitch oxidative muscle fibres
-Fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres


What is the difference between fast twitch and slow twitch fibres?

-Slow twitch muscles help enable long-endurance feats such as distance running
-Fast-twitch muscles fatigue faster but are used in powerful bursts of movements like sprinting


What is the Myelin sheath?

The insulating envelope of myelin that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber or axon and that facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses, formed from the cell membrane of the Schwann cell in the peripheral nervous system and from oligodendroglia cells. Also called medullary sheath .


What is a Schwann cell?

Schwann cells are a variety of glial cell that keep peripheral nerve fibres (both myelinated and unmyelinated) alive. In myelinated axons, Schwann cells form the myelin sheath


What are the nodes of Ranvier?

A gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells.


What is Resting potential?

When the inside of the nerve is more negative than the outside (-60mV). When no impulses are being transmitted.


What is Action potential?

A large change in voltage across the nerve cell membrane.


What is Depolarisation?

The inside of the nerve is positive and the outside negative. This is when an impulse is being transmitted.


What is Repolarisation?

The return to resting potential after an impulse (inside of the cell becomes negative again)


What is Hyperpolarization?

The inside the the nerve becomes even more negative than normal for a short period of time before returning back to normal resting potential.