Cerebrovascular disease Flashcards Preview

KT Neuro Block 5 > Cerebrovascular disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cerebrovascular disease Deck (18):
1

What is the main cause of Global Cerebral Ischemia?

Hypotension

2

What are 2 gross findings you see in Global Cerebral Ischemia?

Watershed infarcts and Laminar necrosis

3

What is the order of events (microscopically) in response to injury by Global Cerebral Ischemia?

Red Neurons show up.
Then necrosis, macrophages, vascular prolif, gliosis.
Lastly, loss of necrotic tissue.

4

What cell type is the most susceptible to hypoxia?

Neurons

5

What are the two types of Focal Cerebral ischemia?

Ischemic (pale) and hemorrhagic (red) infarcts

6

What is usually the cause of an ischemic infarct?

Thrombus

7

What is usually the cause of a hemorrhagic infarct?

Embolus

8

What is the gross appearance in an ischemic focal infarct (order of events)?

First: Pale, swollen, wet
Then Gelatinous
Lastly, tissue dissolves, formes cavitations

9

What is the gross appearance in a hemorrhagic infarct?

First punctate hemorrhages, then resolution and cavitation.

10

What are the microscopic changes that happen in focal infarcts (order of events)?

First: Red neurons
Then: neutrophils
Then: macrophages
Later.... Gloss begins, more macrophages, then dense gloss and new capillaries.

11

What are two things found in Hypertensive cerebrovascular disease?

Lacunar infarcts
Slit hemorrhages

12

What can you see microscopically in slit hemorrhages?

Hemosiderin and lipid-laden macrophages

13

What is the cause of Acute Hypertensive Encephalopathy?

Malignant hypertension

14

What type of aneurysm is found in a parenchymal hemorrhage?

Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysm

15

What are the two common locations of parenchymal hemorrhages?

"ganglionic" and "lobar"

16

What is the most common cause of a subarachnoid hemorrhage?

Rupture of berry aneurysm

17

What is the size of a berry aneurysm that should make you do something?

Greater than 1 cm

18

If a person survives a berry aneurysm rupture, what are they at risk for?

communicating hydrocephalus