Flashcards in Sleep: Ruff Deck (16):
What stage are sleep spindles in?
What type of cells in the cortex make an electrical field that the electrodes can sense for an EEG reading?
When eyes are close, how would you describe the frequency and amplitude compared to when eyes are open?
Closed: larger amplitude, smaller frequency
What does the Ascending Reticular Activating System promote?
What are the 4 ARAS monoaminergic nuclei and what do they produce?
Locus ceruleus: NE
Raphe nuclei: 5-HT
Ventral tegmentum/Substangia Nigra: DA
Tuberomamillary nucleus: HA
What are the ARAS cholinergic nuclei?
Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), and Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT)....They are located in the pons and produce ACh!
What two things does the Lateral Hypothalamus produce?
Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone
What does orexin do?
keeps you awake
What are the two pre optic areas that promote sleep?
Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) and Median preoptic nucleus (MNPO)
Is the reticular nucleus of the thalamus excitatory or inhibitory to the thalamus?
During wakefulness and REM, what kind of projections do LDT and PPT send to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus and to the thalamus?
Inhibitory projection to Reticular nucleus and excitatory projection to Thalamus.
Does the thalamocortical cell hyperpolarize or depolarize during non-REM sleep to send bursts of action potentials to excite the cortical pyramidal neurons?
What part of the cortex is inactivated during REM sleep that allows you to have socially inappropriate dreams?
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
Describe the mechanism for motor suppression in REM.
Lateral hypothalamus----->Subceruleus nucleus------->Ventromedial Medulla-----(Glycinergic)--------l Motor neurons
Also, The Lateral hypothalamus Inhibits the Locus ceruleus and Raphe nuclei (REM-OFF:these normally inhibit the LDT/PPT) so there is no inhibition of the LDT and PPT (REM-ON!)
What is REM behavior disorder?
Loss of REM Atonia