Flashcards in cervical and thoracic Deck (124):
how many cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebra are there?
The vertebral column is commonly called what? (2)
spine and spinal column
When the vertebra are stacked on one another the vertebral foramina form what?
The spinal cord is filled with what?
Cerebral spinal fluid
where does the spine start and end ?
at the base of the skull (medulla oblongata) and extends to sacrum
at the lower level of L-1 the spinal cord terminates at the ?
In some people the conus medullaris can extend as low as ?
To avoid striking the spinal cord,what is a common site for lumbar puncture
what kind of disks separate the adult vertebrae
Fibrocartilage disks account for how much of the vertebral column?
what do the fibrocartilage disks do for the vertebrae?
they are bound to the vertebra for spine stability
Intervertebral disks consist of an outer and inner layer called ?
inner: nucleus pulposus
outer: annulus fibrosus
what is a herniated nucleus pulposus?
occurs when the nucleus ruptures and protrdes into the vertebral canal and impinges on a spinal nerve (slipped disk)
Where does a slipped disk normally occur ?
most commonly in the lumbar region
in early life the vertebral column consists of how many bones?
33 irregularly shaped small bones
how are the bones classified
according to the region they occupy
what are the 5 regions of the spine
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
Cervical vertebrae consists of
most superior 7 bones in the region of the neck
Thoracic vertebrae consists of
next 12 bones form the mid back region and articular with one of more pair of ribs
older term: dorsal spine
Lumbar vertebrae consists of
next 5 vertebrae forms the lower back. They are the largest and strongest in the column (load of body weight increases toward the inferior end of the column
How many sacral segments does a newborn have? how many coccygeal segments?
5 sacral segments
3-5 coccygeal segments
An adult has how many bones in the vertebral column?
Viewed from the side the vertebral column has how many curves that arch posteriorly and anteriorly from the MCP of the body?
What is a concave curve?
a rounded inward or depressed surface
what is a convex curve?
is a rounded outward or elevated surface
What sections of the spine have a concave curve?
cervical and lumbar
what sections of the spine have a convex curve?
thoracic and sacral
What are the primary curves of the body (develop soon after birth)
thoracic and sacral
what are the secondary or compensatory curves?
Cervical and lumbar
When does the cervial curve being to develop?
when a child begins to hold the head up at about 3-4 months
when does the lumbar curve begin to form?
when the child beings to walk
what 2 curves are usually more pronounced in women
lumbar and sacral
What do the curves do for us?
serves to increase strength of vertebral column and maintain balance in upright position
what are the abnormalities of the spine?
lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
what does lordosis mean
bent backward-any abnormal increase in the posterior concavity of the lumbar or cervical region
what can also describe the normal concavity of the lumbar and cervical spine
what can an abnormal increase in curvature result from?
pregnancy, obesity, poor posture, rickets, and tuberculosis of the spine
what is Kyphosis
any abnormal increase in the posterior convexity of the thoracic curve also known as hunchback
what projection will best show kyphosis?
what can cause kyphosis
may be caused by compression fracture of anterior edges of vertebral bodies in osteoporotic patients
Which way does the spine curve in right and left handed people?
right handed: right
Left handed: left
What is any abnormal curvature of the spine called ?
In a scoliosis patient why does the column develop a second curve in the opposite direction
to keep the head centered over the feet
a typical vertebra is composed of two main parts which are?
body and vertebral arch
What is the body of a vertebra
thick, weight bearing anterior portion of the vertebra (superior and inferior surfaces are covered by a thin plate of articular cartilage
what is the vertebral arch
consists of a ring or arch of bone extending posteriorly from the vertebral body
The body and the arch encloses a space called
What is a pedicle?
extend posteriorly from the body and form the sides of the vertebral arch
what does pedicle also mean?
what borders of the pedicles are concave
the superior and inferior borders
The concave border of the upper surface of the pedicle is known as ? the lower surface?
upper: superior vertebral notch
lower: inferior vertebral notch
When the vertebrae are stacked these notches line up and the two concave areas form a single opening called
What passes through the intervertebral foramina
spinal nerves and blood vessels
The pedicles unite posteriorly with?
what is the laminae?
the posterior part of the vertebral arch that are somewhat flat bones
What is the transverse process?
projects laterally and slightly posteriorly from the junction of the pedicles and laminae
what is the spinous process?
extends posteriorly from the midline junction of the laminae
what do the spinous and transverse process do?
serves as an attachment for muscles
What is a congenital defect in which the laminae fail to unite posteriorly as the midline
how many articular processes are on a vertebra
4, two articular surfaces superior and two inferior that arise at the junction of the pedicles and laminae to articulate with above and below vertebra
what are the articular surfaces called?
Each inferior articular surface has a facet on its ____ surface and the superior articular surface has a facet on its ___ surface?
The articulations between the articular processes of the vertebral arches are referred to as?
zygapophyseal joints (or interarticular facet joints)
what is the zygapophyseal joints formed by?
the articulation of the superior articular process of one vertebra to the inferior articular process of the vertebra above
What two parts of the vertebra must be demonstrated radiographically by the appropriate projection in each of the 3 major portions of the vertebral column
zygapophyseal joints and the intervertebral foramina
what are the 3 joints of the vertebral column
intervertebral joints, zygapophyseal joints and costal joints
what joint could respiration not occur ?
what are the intervertebral joints
slightly moveable joints between the vertebral bodies
what are the costal joints
are located in the thoracic region, the 12 ribs articulate with the transverse processes and the vertebral bodies
what does the costovertebral joint consist of
the head of the rib articulating with the facets on the vertebral body
what does the costotransverse joint consist of
between the tubercle of the rib and the transverse process of the vertebra
What 3 cervical vertebra are atypical
Why are C1-C2 & C7 atypical
C1-C2: modified to fit the skull
C7: modifie to joint to the thoracic spine
C1 is also called
C2 is also called
what are the typical vertebra
What are some characteristics of cervial vertebra
bifid spinous process tips, overlapping bodies, three foramina, transverse foramina
Whats forms the superior and inferior articular processes
at the point where the laminae and pedicles meet
what is the short column between the superior and inferior articular processes called
what is the articular pillar of C1 called?
what projection visualizes the cervical (c2-c7) zygapophyseal joints? why?
the lateral projection, because they lie at right angles to the MSP
what projection can you see the zygapophyseal joints of C1 -C2?
true AP projection
where are the zygapophyseal joints located
between the pillars of each vertebra
what forms the intervertebral foramina?
when each vertebra are stacked on one another the superior vertebral notch meets the inferior vertebral notch of another vertebra form the intervertebral foramina
At what angle from the MSP does the cervical intervertebral foramina lie?
Because of the shape and the overlapping cervical vertebra they are also directed as what kind of angle
15 inferior angle
How would you open up and radiographically demonstrate the cervical intervertebral foramina (AP projection)?
a 45 degree oblique projection with a 15 degree cephalad angle
what is the name atlas derived from?
a greek god who bore world upon his shoulders
what vertebra has no body?
The atlas has no body, instead it has an?
Where is the small anterior tubercle located?
on the anterior arch of C1
what is the articulation between the 1st cervical bone and the skull called
what bears a small bifid posterior tubercle instead of 2 laminae?
what support the weight of the head and these portions are bulky and solid part of C1?
the ring formed by the anterior and posterior arches is divided into anterior and posterior portions by a ligament called?
transverse atlantal ligament
what does the anterior portion of atlantal ring of C1 hold?
what does the poster potion of the atlantal ring of C1 hold?
transmits the proximal spinal cord
what does the odontoid process do?
acts as a pivot or body for the atlas
what is the 7th cervical vertebra called
what are the typical thoracic vertebra ?
what is the costovertebral joint
the head of the rib articulates with the costal facets
what is the costotransverse joint
where the tubercle of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebra
what thoracic bodies contain demifacets both superiorly and inferiorly?
How many demifacets does T9 have
only 1 superiorly
what do 10,11,12 have for costovertebral joints?
a single facet on the superior margin
In the thoracic vertebrae the zygapophyseal joints form an angle of __ to the MSP?
70-75 from msp
For radiographic demonstration of the zygapophyseal joints in the thoracic vertebra how many degrees from the lateral position must the patient be rotated?
15-20 from lateral (70-75 from tabletop)
The LPO position of the thoracic vertebra "opens up" which side of the zygapophyseal joints?
the right side
The intervertebral foramina on the thoracic vertebra are located at what degree to the MSP?
what projection are the intervertebral foramina of the thoracic vertebra best demonstrated?
what projection shows the zygapophyseal joints of C1-C2?
AP open mouth
The RPO position of the thoracic vertebra "opens up" which side of the zygapophyseal joints & what CR angle?
To open up the intervertebral foramina of the cervical vertebra, what angle would you use on an LPO &RPO position?
15 degree cephalad
To open up the intervertebral foramina of the cervical vertebra, what angle would you use on an LAO &RAO position?
15 degree caudad
To open up the intervertebral foramina of the cervical vertebra, what position would use to open the right side?
To open up the intervertebral foramina of the cervical vertebra, what position would use to open the left side?
The mastoid tip (or 1 in below EAM) correspond to what level?
With the head in the neutral position the gonion is at the level of ?
Most prominent part of thyroid cartilage (adams apple) is at approximate the level of ?
C5 (varies between C4-C6)
vertebra prominens is at the same level as the body of ?
location of jugular notch?
location of sternal angle
location of inferior angle of scapula