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Flashcards in cervical and thoracic Deck (124):
1

how many cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebra are there?

Cervical: 7
Thoracic: 12
Lumbar: 5

2

The vertebral column is commonly called what? (2)

spine and spinal column

3

When the vertebra are stacked on one another the vertebral foramina form what?

spinal canal

4

The spinal cord is filled with what?

Cerebral spinal fluid

5

where does the spine start and end ?

at the base of the skull (medulla oblongata) and extends to sacrum

6

at the lower level of L-1 the spinal cord terminates at the ?

conus medullaris

7

In some people the conus medullaris can extend as low as ?

L2

8

To avoid striking the spinal cord,what is a common site for lumbar puncture

L3-L4

9

what kind of disks separate the adult vertebrae

Fibrocartilage disks

10

Fibrocartilage disks account for how much of the vertebral column?

about 1/4

11

what do the fibrocartilage disks do for the vertebrae?

they are bound to the vertebra for spine stability

12

Intervertebral disks consist of an outer and inner layer called ?

inner: nucleus pulposus
outer: annulus fibrosus

13

what is a herniated nucleus pulposus?

occurs when the nucleus ruptures and protrdes into the vertebral canal and impinges on a spinal nerve (slipped disk)

14

Where does a slipped disk normally occur ?

most commonly in the lumbar region

15

in early life the vertebral column consists of how many bones?

33 irregularly shaped small bones

16

how are the bones classified

according to the region they occupy

17

what are the 5 regions of the spine

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

18

Cervical vertebrae consists of

most superior 7 bones in the region of the neck

19

Thoracic vertebrae consists of

next 12 bones form the mid back region and articular with one of more pair of ribs
older term: dorsal spine

20

Lumbar vertebrae consists of

next 5 vertebrae forms the lower back. They are the largest and strongest in the column (load of body weight increases toward the inferior end of the column

21

How many sacral segments does a newborn have? how many coccygeal segments?

5 sacral segments
3-5 coccygeal segments

22

An adult has how many bones in the vertebral column?

26

23

Viewed from the side the vertebral column has how many curves that arch posteriorly and anteriorly from the MCP of the body?

4 curves

24

What is a concave curve?

a rounded inward or depressed surface

25

what is a convex curve?

is a rounded outward or elevated surface

26

What sections of the spine have a concave curve?

cervical and lumbar

27

what sections of the spine have a convex curve?

thoracic and sacral

28

What are the primary curves of the body (develop soon after birth)

thoracic and sacral

29

what are the secondary or compensatory curves?

Cervical and lumbar

30

When does the cervial curve being to develop?

when a child begins to hold the head up at about 3-4 months

31

when does the lumbar curve begin to form?

when the child beings to walk

32

what 2 curves are usually more pronounced in women

lumbar and sacral

33

What do the curves do for us?

serves to increase strength of vertebral column and maintain balance in upright position

34

what are the abnormalities of the spine?

lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis

35

what does lordosis mean

bent backward-any abnormal increase in the posterior concavity of the lumbar or cervical region

36

what can also describe the normal concavity of the lumbar and cervical spine

lordosis

37

what can an abnormal increase in curvature result from?

pregnancy, obesity, poor posture, rickets, and tuberculosis of the spine

38

what is Kyphosis

any abnormal increase in the posterior convexity of the thoracic curve also known as hunchback

39

what projection will best show kyphosis?

lateral projection

40

what can cause kyphosis

may be caused by compression fracture of anterior edges of vertebral bodies in osteoporotic patients

41

Which way does the spine curve in right and left handed people?

right handed: right
Left handed: left

42

What is any abnormal curvature of the spine called ?

scoliosis

43

In a scoliosis patient why does the column develop a second curve in the opposite direction

to keep the head centered over the feet

44

a typical vertebra is composed of two main parts which are?

body and vertebral arch

45

What is the body of a vertebra

thick, weight bearing anterior portion of the vertebra (superior and inferior surfaces are covered by a thin plate of articular cartilage

46

what is the vertebral arch

consists of a ring or arch of bone extending posteriorly from the vertebral body

47

The body and the arch encloses a space called

vertebral foramen

48

What is a pedicle?

extend posteriorly from the body and form the sides of the vertebral arch

49

what does pedicle also mean?

little feet

50

what borders of the pedicles are concave

the superior and inferior borders

51

The concave border of the upper surface of the pedicle is known as ? the lower surface?

upper: superior vertebral notch
lower: inferior vertebral notch

52

When the vertebrae are stacked these notches line up and the two concave areas form a single opening called

intervertebral foramina

53

What passes through the intervertebral foramina

spinal nerves and blood vessels

54

The pedicles unite posteriorly with?

laminae

55

what is the laminae?

the posterior part of the vertebral arch that are somewhat flat bones

56

What is the transverse process?

projects laterally and slightly posteriorly from the junction of the pedicles and laminae

57

what is the spinous process?

extends posteriorly from the midline junction of the laminae

58

what do the spinous and transverse process do?

serves as an attachment for muscles

59

What is a congenital defect in which the laminae fail to unite posteriorly as the midline

spina bifida

60

how many articular processes are on a vertebra

4, two articular surfaces superior and two inferior that arise at the junction of the pedicles and laminae to articulate with above and below vertebra

61

what are the articular surfaces called?

facets

62

Each inferior articular surface has a facet on its ____ surface and the superior articular surface has a facet on its ___ surface?

inferior:anterior
superior: posterior

63

The articulations between the articular processes of the vertebral arches are referred to as?

zygapophyseal joints (or interarticular facet joints)

64

what is the zygapophyseal joints formed by?

the articulation of the superior articular process of one vertebra to the inferior articular process of the vertebra above

65

What two parts of the vertebra must be demonstrated radiographically by the appropriate projection in each of the 3 major portions of the vertebral column

zygapophyseal joints and the intervertebral foramina

66

what are the 3 joints of the vertebral column

intervertebral joints, zygapophyseal joints and costal joints

67

what joint could respiration not occur ?

costal joints

68

what are the intervertebral joints

slightly moveable joints between the vertebral bodies

69

what are the costal joints

are located in the thoracic region, the 12 ribs articulate with the transverse processes and the vertebral bodies

70

what does the costovertebral joint consist of

the head of the rib articulating with the facets on the vertebral body

71

what does the costotransverse joint consist of

between the tubercle of the rib and the transverse process of the vertebra

72

What 3 cervical vertebra are atypical

1,2,7

73

Why are C1-C2 & C7 atypical

C1-C2: modified to fit the skull
C7: modifie to joint to the thoracic spine

74

C1 is also called

atlas

75

C2 is also called

Axis

76

what are the typical vertebra

C3-C6

77

What are some characteristics of cervial vertebra

bifid spinous process tips, overlapping bodies, three foramina, transverse foramina

78

Whats forms the superior and inferior articular processes

at the point where the laminae and pedicles meet

79

what is the short column between the superior and inferior articular processes called

articular pillar

80

what is the articular pillar of C1 called?

lateral mass

81

what projection visualizes the cervical (c2-c7) zygapophyseal joints? why?

the lateral projection, because they lie at right angles to the MSP

82

what projection can you see the zygapophyseal joints of C1 -C2?

true AP projection

83

where are the zygapophyseal joints located

between the pillars of each vertebra

84

what forms the intervertebral foramina?

when each vertebra are stacked on one another the superior vertebral notch meets the inferior vertebral notch of another vertebra form the intervertebral foramina

85

At what angle from the MSP does the cervical intervertebral foramina lie?

45 degrees

86

Because of the shape and the overlapping cervical vertebra they are also directed as what kind of angle

15 inferior angle

87

How would you open up and radiographically demonstrate the cervical intervertebral foramina (AP projection)?

a 45 degree oblique projection with a 15 degree cephalad angle

88

what is the name atlas derived from?

a greek god who bore world upon his shoulders

89

what vertebra has no body?

atlas

90

The atlas has no body, instead it has an?

anterior arch

91

Where is the small anterior tubercle located?

on the anterior arch of C1

92

what is the articulation between the 1st cervical bone and the skull called

atlantooccipital articulation

93

what bears a small bifid posterior tubercle instead of 2 laminae?

posterior tubercle

94

what support the weight of the head and these portions are bulky and solid part of C1?

lateral masses

95

the ring formed by the anterior and posterior arches is divided into anterior and posterior portions by a ligament called?

transverse atlantal ligament

96

what does the anterior portion of atlantal ring of C1 hold?

the dens

97

what does the poster potion of the atlantal ring of C1 hold?

transmits the proximal spinal cord

98

what does the odontoid process do?

acts as a pivot or body for the atlas

99

what is the 7th cervical vertebra called

vertebra prominens

100

what are the typical thoracic vertebra ?

T5-T8

101

what is the costovertebral joint

the head of the rib articulates with the costal facets

102

what is the costotransverse joint

where the tubercle of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebra

103

what thoracic bodies contain demifacets both superiorly and inferiorly?

2nd-8th

104

How many demifacets does T9 have

only 1 superiorly

105

what do 10,11,12 have for costovertebral joints?

a single facet on the superior margin

106

In the thoracic vertebrae the zygapophyseal joints form an angle of __ to the MSP?

70-75 from msp

107

For radiographic demonstration of the zygapophyseal joints in the thoracic vertebra how many degrees from the lateral position must the patient be rotated?

15-20 from lateral (70-75 from tabletop)

108

The LPO position of the thoracic vertebra "opens up" which side of the zygapophyseal joints?

the right side

109

The intervertebral foramina on the thoracic vertebra are located at what degree to the MSP?

90 degrees

110

what projection are the intervertebral foramina of the thoracic vertebra best demonstrated?

true lateral

111

what projection shows the zygapophyseal joints of C1-C2?

AP open mouth

112

The RPO position of the thoracic vertebra "opens up" which side of the zygapophyseal joints & what CR angle?

left side

113

To open up the intervertebral foramina of the cervical vertebra, what angle would you use on an LPO &RPO position?

15 degree cephalad

114

To open up the intervertebral foramina of the cervical vertebra, what angle would you use on an LAO &RAO position?

15 degree caudad

115

To open up the intervertebral foramina of the cervical vertebra, what position would use to open the right side?

RAO, LPO

116

To open up the intervertebral foramina of the cervical vertebra, what position would use to open the left side?

LAO,RPO

117

The mastoid tip (or 1 in below EAM) correspond to what level?

C1

118

With the head in the neutral position the gonion is at the level of ?

C3

119

Most prominent part of thyroid cartilage (adams apple) is at approximate the level of ?

C5 (varies between C4-C6)

120

vertebra prominens is at the same level as the body of ?

T1

121

location of jugular notch?

T2-T3

122

location of sternal angle

T4-T5

123

location of inferior angle of scapula

T7

124

location of xiphoid process

T9-T10