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Flashcards in CR Deck (59):
1

what is a jefferson fracture

comminuted fracture that occurs as a result of axial loading, anterior and posterior arches of C1 are fractured

2

what is a clay shovelers fracture?

results from hyperextension of neck and causes avulsion fracture of spinous process of C6-T1

3

what is a compression fracture?

involves collapse of vertebral body, anterior edge collapse, best demonstrated on lateral

4

what is hangmans fracture?

fracture extends through pedicles of C2, occurs when neck is subjected to extreme hyperextension-very unstable fracture because dens is presses posteriorly against brain stem

5

what is odontoid fracture?

involved the dens and can extend into the lateral masses or arches of C1

6

where do you center for a AP open mouth?

through center of mouth, lower margin of upper incisors and mastoid tip perpendicular to IR

7

how much do you angle for AP axial C spine?

15-20 cephalad, 15 when supine, 20 when upright or more lordotic position

8

where do you center for AP axial c-spine?

lower margin of thryroid cartilage to pass thru C4

9

what would best display a clay shovelers fracture?

AP axial

10

what would best display a jefferson fracture?

AP open mouth

11

where do you center for oblique of c-spine ? PA? AP?

15 caudad at C4 for PA
15 cephalad at C4 for AP

12

for the PA projections oblique C spine what will open the intervertebral foramina

side closes to the IR

13

for the AP projections oblique C spine what will open the intervertebral foramina

side farthest from the IR

14

where do you center for a lateral c-spine

perpendicular to C4, IR at 1-2 inches above EAM

15

what is the swimmers(cervicothoracic) method also called?

twinning method

16

where do you center for the twinning method?

perpendicular to T1 about 1 inch above jugular notch anteriorly, vertebra prominens posteriorly

17

where do you center for lateral hyperextension and hyperflexion?

perpendicular to IR directed horizontally to area of C4

18

what is hyperextension and hyperflexion used for ?

rule out whiplash type injured and to demonstrate vertebral mobility

19

where do you center for AP Fuchs

elevate chin until MML near perpendicular to tabletop and adjust CR angle as needed to be parallel

20

where do you center for PA Judd

Cr is parallel to MML through mid occipital bone about 1 in inferoposterior to mastoid tips and angles of mandible

21

Where do you center for wagging jaw?

Perpendicular to C4, adjust head to line drawn from lower margin of upper incisors to base of skull is perpendicular to IR

22

what is wagging jaw also called?

ottonello method

23

where do you center for the AP axial pillar

lower level of thyroid cartilage to pass through C5

24

how much do you angle for AP axial pillar?

20-30 caudad at c5

25

where do you center for T spine projections?

T7-- 3-4 in below jugular notch, 7-8 in below vertebra prominens, 1-2 below sternal angle

26

on a lateral t-spine which lateral places the heart closer to the IR ?

left lateral

27

if pt has broad shoulders on lateral t-spine how much do you angle the tube? which way?

3-5 caudad

28

how much do you oblique patient for oblique t-spine?

20 from lateral, 70-75 from tabletop

29

at what angle from MSP is the intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine located?

45 degrees

30

at what angle from MSP is the intervertebral foramina of the thoracic spine located?

90

31

at what angle from MSP is the intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine located?

90

32

at what angle from MSP is the zygapophyseal joints of the cervical spine located

90

33

at what angle from MSP is the zygapophyseal joints of the thoracic spine located

70-75

34

at what angle from MSP is the zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar spine located

30(lower)-50 (upper)

35

what would demonstrate the zygapophyseal joints of C1-C2 ?

true ap

36

What would show the right cervical intervertebral foramina?

LPO, RAO

37

what would show the left cervical intervertebral foramina?

RPO, LAO

38

What would show the right zygapophyseal joints of the thoracic

LPO, RAO

39

What would show the right zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar

RPO, LAO

40

What would show the left zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar

LPO, RAO

41

What would show the left zygapophyseal joints of the thoracic

RPO, LAO

42

where do you center for AP lumber? 35X43? 30X35?

35X43: directed to iliac crest (include lumbar to coccyx)
30x35: directed to L3 (include 5 lumbar)

43

where do you center for oblique of lumbar?

L3, level of lower costal margin (1 1/2 in above iliac crest) and 2 inches medial to upside ASIS

44

where do you center for a lateral lumbar?

35X43: directed to iliac crest (include lumbar to coccyx)
30x35: : directed to L3 (include 5 lumbar)

45

In a lateral lumbar if patient has a wide hips and narrow thorax what would you do?

angle 5-8 caudad angle to parallel to interiliac plane

46

where do you center for lateral L5-S1

1.5 inches inferior to iliac crest and 2 in posterior to ASIS

47

where do you center for AP axial L5-S1? angle?

level of ASIS, 30° cephalad males, 35° cephalad female

48

Scoliosis IR placement?

lower margin 1-2 inches below the iliac crest center CR to IR

49

PA rather than AP reduces female breast dose by what %?

90%

50

where do you place IR for spinal fusion?

bottom edge of IR 1-2 below iliac crest

51

where do you center for AP Axial Sacrum?

15 cephalad to 2 inches above pubic symphysis

52

where do you center for AP axial coccyx?

10 caudad to 2 inches above pubic symphysis (increase to 15 with greater anterior curvature

53

lateral sacrum and coccyx centering point?

centered 3-4 inches posterior to asis

54

lateral coccyx centering?

3-4 inches posterior and 2 inches distal to ASIS

55

SI joints AP axial centering

angle 30-35 cephalad (male 30,female 35) midline point between 2 inches below asis

56

where do you center for the alternative pa si joints?

30-35 caudad angle at L4

57

SI joints AP oblique centering point

perpendicular 1 inch medial to upside Asis

58

alternatic si joints angle to open inferior aspects of joint more clearly

15-20 cephalad

59

how much do you rotate patient for Si joints ?

25-30