Flashcards in CR Deck (59):

1

## what is a jefferson fracture

### comminuted fracture that occurs as a result of axial loading, anterior and posterior arches of C1 are fractured

2

## what is a clay shovelers fracture?

### results from hyperextension of neck and causes avulsion fracture of spinous process of C6-T1

3

## what is a compression fracture?

### involves collapse of vertebral body, anterior edge collapse, best demonstrated on lateral

4

## what is hangmans fracture?

### fracture extends through pedicles of C2, occurs when neck is subjected to extreme hyperextension-very unstable fracture because dens is presses posteriorly against brain stem

5

## what is odontoid fracture?

### involved the dens and can extend into the lateral masses or arches of C1

6

## where do you center for a AP open mouth?

### through center of mouth, lower margin of upper incisors and mastoid tip perpendicular to IR

7

## how much do you angle for AP axial C spine?

### 15-20 cephalad, 15 when supine, 20 when upright or more lordotic position

8

## where do you center for AP axial c-spine?

### lower margin of thryroid cartilage to pass thru C4

9

## what would best display a clay shovelers fracture?

### AP axial

10

## what would best display a jefferson fracture?

### AP open mouth

11

## where do you center for oblique of c-spine ? PA? AP?

###
15 caudad at C4 for PA

15 cephalad at C4 for AP

12

## for the PA projections oblique C spine what will open the intervertebral foramina

### side closes to the IR

13

## for the AP projections oblique C spine what will open the intervertebral foramina

### side farthest from the IR

14

## where do you center for a lateral c-spine

### perpendicular to C4, IR at 1-2 inches above EAM

15

## what is the swimmers(cervicothoracic) method also called?

### twinning method

16

## where do you center for the twinning method?

### perpendicular to T1 about 1 inch above jugular notch anteriorly, vertebra prominens posteriorly

17

## where do you center for lateral hyperextension and hyperflexion?

### perpendicular to IR directed horizontally to area of C4

18

## what is hyperextension and hyperflexion used for ?

### rule out whiplash type injured and to demonstrate vertebral mobility

19

## where do you center for AP Fuchs

### elevate chin until MML near perpendicular to tabletop and adjust CR angle as needed to be parallel

20

## where do you center for PA Judd

### Cr is parallel to MML through mid occipital bone about 1 in inferoposterior to mastoid tips and angles of mandible

21

## Where do you center for wagging jaw?

### Perpendicular to C4, adjust head to line drawn from lower margin of upper incisors to base of skull is perpendicular to IR

22

## what is wagging jaw also called?

### ottonello method

23

## where do you center for the AP axial pillar

### lower level of thyroid cartilage to pass through C5

24

## how much do you angle for AP axial pillar?

### 20-30 caudad at c5

25

## where do you center for T spine projections?

### T7-- 3-4 in below jugular notch, 7-8 in below vertebra prominens, 1-2 below sternal angle

26

## on a lateral t-spine which lateral places the heart closer to the IR ?

### left lateral

27

## if pt has broad shoulders on lateral t-spine how much do you angle the tube? which way?

### 3-5 caudad

28

## how much do you oblique patient for oblique t-spine?

### 20 from lateral, 70-75 from tabletop

29

## at what angle from MSP is the intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine located?

### 45 degrees

30

## at what angle from MSP is the intervertebral foramina of the thoracic spine located?

### 90

31

## at what angle from MSP is the intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine located?

### 90

32

## at what angle from MSP is the zygapophyseal joints of the cervical spine located

### 90

33

## at what angle from MSP is the zygapophyseal joints of the thoracic spine located

### 70-75

34

## at what angle from MSP is the zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar spine located

### 30(lower)-50 (upper)

35

## what would demonstrate the zygapophyseal joints of C1-C2 ?

### true ap

36

## What would show the right cervical intervertebral foramina?

### LPO, RAO

37

## what would show the left cervical intervertebral foramina?

### RPO, LAO

38

## What would show the right zygapophyseal joints of the thoracic

### LPO, RAO

39

## What would show the right zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar

### RPO, LAO

40

## What would show the left zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar

### LPO, RAO

41

## What would show the left zygapophyseal joints of the thoracic

### RPO, LAO

42

## where do you center for AP lumber? 35X43? 30X35?

###
35X43: directed to iliac crest (include lumbar to coccyx)

30x35: directed to L3 (include 5 lumbar)

43

## where do you center for oblique of lumbar?

### L3, level of lower costal margin (1 1/2 in above iliac crest) and 2 inches medial to upside ASIS

44

## where do you center for a lateral lumbar?

###
35X43: directed to iliac crest (include lumbar to coccyx)

30x35: : directed to L3 (include 5 lumbar)

45

## In a lateral lumbar if patient has a wide hips and narrow thorax what would you do?

### angle 5-8 caudad angle to parallel to interiliac plane

46

## where do you center for lateral L5-S1

### 1.5 inches inferior to iliac crest and 2 in posterior to ASIS

47

## where do you center for AP axial L5-S1? angle?

### level of ASIS, 30° cephalad males, 35° cephalad female

48

## Scoliosis IR placement?

### lower margin 1-2 inches below the iliac crest center CR to IR

49

## PA rather than AP reduces female breast dose by what %?

### 90%

50

## where do you place IR for spinal fusion?

### bottom edge of IR 1-2 below iliac crest

51

## where do you center for AP Axial Sacrum?

### 15 cephalad to 2 inches above pubic symphysis

52

## where do you center for AP axial coccyx?

### 10 caudad to 2 inches above pubic symphysis (increase to 15 with greater anterior curvature

53

## lateral sacrum and coccyx centering point?

### centered 3-4 inches posterior to asis

54

## lateral coccyx centering?

### 3-4 inches posterior and 2 inches distal to ASIS

55

## SI joints AP axial centering

### angle 30-35 cephalad (male 30,female 35) midline point between 2 inches below asis

56

## where do you center for the alternative pa si joints?

### 30-35 caudad angle at L4

57

## SI joints AP oblique centering point

### perpendicular 1 inch medial to upside Asis

58

## alternatic si joints angle to open inferior aspects of joint more clearly

### 15-20 cephalad

59