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Flashcards in Skull Deck (58):
1

what is a linear fracture?

appear as a jagged or irregular lucent lines that lie at right angles to the axis of the bone

2

what is a depressed fracture?

a fragment of bone is separated and depresses into cranial cavity

3

what is a depressed fracture also called

ping pong fracture

4

why is a basal skull fracture difficult to see on plain radiographs

because they are hidden by the dense structures of the temporal bone

5

what suggests a basal skull fracture

air fluid level in the sphenoid sinus on a horizontal beam lateral

6

what are the 4 complications of a basal skull fracture

leakage of CSF, meningitis, damage to facial nerve, and damage to auditory apparatus

7

what are neoplasm

new and abnormal growths

8

what does osteolytic mean

destructive lesions with irregular margins

9

what does osteoblastic mean

proliferative bony lesions of increased density

10

what appearance does osteolytic and osteoblastic make

moth eaten appearance due to mix of destructive and blastic lesions

11

what is multiple myeloma

consists of one or more bone tumors that originate in bone marrow q

12

what is pituirary ademona

tumor of the pituitary gland

13

what is pituirary ademona usually diagnosed with

CT or MRI

14

a plain image of pituirary ademona appears as?

demonstrate enlargement of sella turcica or erosion of dorsum sellae

15

what is pagets disease (osteitis deformans)

unknown etiology, begins as a stage of bony destruction followed by repair

16

what appearance does pagets disease produce

cotton wool appearance with irregular areas of increased density shows reparative stage

17

what is mastoiditis

bacterial infection that can destroy inner part of mastoid process

18

what is acoustic neuroma

benign tumor of the auditory nerve

19

where does acoustic neuroma originate

IAC

20

how does acoustic neuroma appear on a plain film

expansion and asymmetry of affected IAC

21

what is cholesteatoma

benign cyst like mass or tumor

22

where is cholesteatoma most common

in the middle ear or mastoid region secondary to trauma to this region

23

what is a polyp

growth that arises from a mucous membrane and projects into cavity (sinus)

24

what is otosclerosis

abnormal sponge like bone grows in middle ear

25

what is the average skull called

mesocephalic

26

what is the width to length of the mesocephalic skull

width 75 to 80% of length

27

with the mesocephalic skull at what degrees does the petrous pyramids project anteriorly and medially from the MSP?

47°

28

what is the type of skull that is short from front to back and broad from side to side

brachycephalic

29

what angle does the pertrous pyramids form with the MSP on a brachycephalic

54° angle

30

what is the name of the skull that is long from front to back and narrow from side to side

dolichocephalic

31

what angle does the petrous ridges form with the MSP in a dolichocephalic head

40° angle

32

in the dolichocephalic head the width is what % less than the length

75%

33

in the brachycephalic head the width is what % greater than the length

80%

34

what are sutural or wormian bones

small bones located within a suture

35

what are the 3 divisions of the ear

external, middle and inner

36

what are the part of the external ear

auricle, tragus, eam, mastoid process, mastoid tip, styloid process

37

the external ear ends as what

tympanic membrane

38

what are the 3 parts of the middle ear

tympanic membrane, tympanic cavity and auditory ossicles

39

what is the tympanic membrance?

partition between external and middle ear, functions to transmits sounds

40

what is the 2 parts of the tympanic cavity

tympanic cavity proper and the epitympanic recess

41

what does the tympanic cavity communicate with

the nasopharynx

42

what is the drum crest

bony projection to which tympanic membrane is attached

43

what is the eustachian tube

passageway between middle ear and nasopharynx

44

what is the epitympanic membrane

area above level of eam and eardrum

45

what does the eustachian tube do for us

equalizes pressure within middle ear to the outside air

46

what is the Internal acoustic meatus best demonstrated on

CT or MRI

47

what is the aditus

opening between epitympanic recess and mastoid

48

what do the auditory ossicles do

transmits sound vibrations from tympanic membrane to sensory apparatus of hearing in internal ear

49

what are the 3 auditory ossicles

malleus (hammer) incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup)

50

the handle of the malleus attached to tympanic membrane and head articulates with

incus

51

the head of the stapes articulated with incus and its base fits where

into the oval window of the inner ear

52

what is the function of the inner ear

contains sensory apparatus of hearing and equilibrium

53

what are the two parts of the inner ear

osseous (bony) labyrinth or membranous labyrinth

54

what is the function of the osseous labyrinth

bony chamber that houses membranous labyrinth

55

what are the 3 parts of the osseous labyrinth

cochlea, vestibule and semi circular canals

56

what is the function of the cochlea and the vestibule

communicates with middle ear through round window

57

what part of the inner ear related to sense of hearing because of connection to stapes through oval window

cochlea

58

what allows for movement of fluid within the closed duct system of membranous labyrinth

round (cochlear) window