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Flashcards in Lower GI Deck (142):
1

what are the parts of the alimentary canal??

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, large intestine, anus

2

what is the study of the small bowel?

small bowel series

3

what is the study of the large intestine?

barium enema

4

where does the small intestine begin?

at the pyloric valve

5

what are the 3 parts of the small intestine?

duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

6

what quadrants is the duodenum located in?

RUQ and LUQ

7

what is the shortest, widest and most fixed section of the small intestine?

duodenum

8

where does the duodenum join the jejunum?

at the duodenojejunal flexure

9

what quadrant is the duodenojejunal flexure located in?

LUQ

10

what does jejunum mean

empty

11

what quadrants is the jejunum located in?

LUQ and LLQ

12

how much does the jejunum make up of the small bowel

2/5

13

where does most of chemical and nutrient absorption occur?

jejunum

14

what does the jejunum contain which increase surface area to aid with absorption

plicae circulares

15

what is the distal 3/5 of the small bowel?

ileum

16

what quadrants is the ileum located in?

RUQ, RLQ, and LLQ

17

what is the last portion of ileum

terminal ileum

18

where does the ileum join the large intestine?

ileocecal valve

19

where is the ileocecal vale located

in the RLQ of the abdomen

20

what does the ileocecal valve do?

controls the flow of chyme from the ileum to the cecum

21

the duodenum has what look radiographically?

feathery appearance de to the villi in the place circularis

22

which has the most feathery looking appearance of the small bowel?

the jejunum- number and size of fold gradually diminish as jejunum merge with ileum

23

large intestine consists of 3 parts?

cecum, colon, rectum

24

how long is the large intestine?

5 feet

25

what are the parts of the colon?

ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, right colic flexure, left colic flexure

26

what quadrant does the large intestine begin in

RLQ

27

what is the proximal end of the large intestine

cecum

28

acute appendicitis accounts for what % of emergency surgeries

50%

29

how many more time common is appendicitis in males than females

1.5 times more

30

what position demonstrates the right colic (hepatic) flexure

LPO

31

where does the ascending colon begin

cecum

32

what is the longest and most moveable part of the large intestine

transverse colon

33

how many inches can the transverse colon vary from recumbent to upright

7 inches

34

what projection best demonstrated the left colic (splenic) flexure?

RPO

35

as the brim of the pelvis the colon makes s shaped curved called what

sigmoid colon

36

at what level does the sigmoid colon become the rectum

s3

37

how long is the rectum

1/4 inch

38

what is the dilated portion of the rectum anterior to coccyx called

rectal ampulla

39

what are the 3 differences in the large vs the small intestine

internal diameter, haustra (in large) and relative positions (small intestine centrally located, large around the periphery)

40

what structures are intrapertioneal

cecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon,

41

what structures are retroperitoneal

ascending colon, descending colon, upper rectum

42

what structures are infapertioneal?

lower rectum

43

what are the 4 primary functions of large and small intestine

Digestion, absorption, reabsorption, elimination

44

most digestion and absorption of nutrients, water, salt, and proteins takes place within what organ

small intestine

45

small intestine reabsorbs what percent of water and salts

95%

46

what is the primary function of the large intestine

defecation

47

vitamins and amino acids are produced by

bacterial action

48

what 3 types of gases are produced as by prodcuts of bacterial action

hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane gas

49

what is haustral churning

moves contents from haustrarum to haustrum by muscular contractions

50

what is mass peristalsis

forces contents into sigmoid colon and rectum

51

what is defecation

eliminates feces by contractions is sigmoid colon and rectum

52

where does digestion occur

small intestine

53

where does absorption occur

duodenum and jejunum

54

where does reabsorption and elimination occur

large intesine

55

what are the 2 types of movements in the small intestine

peristalsis, and rhythmic segmentation

56

what are the 4 types of movements in the large intestine

peristalsis, haustral churning, mass peristalsis, defecation

57

what is the purpose of a small bowel series

study the form and function of the three components of the small bowel and detect abnormal conditions

58

when does the time for the small bowel study start

after the patient has ingested 8oz of contrast media

59

what are the 2 contraindications for a small bowel study

perforated hollow viscous & large bowel obstruction

60

what exams would you do if a patient has a large bowel obstruction

barium enema or acute abdominal series

61

what is enteritis

inflammation of the intestine-primarrily small intestine

62

what causes enteritis

bacteria or environmental factors

63

what is regional enteritis (segmental enteritis or crohns disease

form of inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin- mostly the terminal ileum is involved

64

what appearance does regional enteritis produce on a SBS

cobblestone appearance

65

what is giardiasis

infection of small intestine caused by flagellate protozoan

66

what are symptoms of giardiasis

GI discomfort, mild to profuse diarrhea, nausea, anorexia, weight loss

67

what part of the small intestine does giardiasis involve

duodenum and jejunum

68

what appearance does giardiasis produce

dilation od intestine with thickening of place circulars

69

what is an ileus

obstruction of small bowel

70

what are the 2 types of ileus

adynamic (paralytic) and mechanical

71

what is adynamic or paralytic ileus

cessation of peristalsis, intestine is distended with a thin bowel wall

72

what is mechanical obstruction

physical blockage of bowel

73

what radiographic appearance does mechanical obstruction produce

circular staircase or herringbone pattern evident on an upright radiograph

74

what is meckels diverticulum

congenital defect found in ileum, persistence of the yolk sac resulting in an outpouching of the intestinal wall

75

what is meckels diverticulum best demonstrated with

nuc med

76

what is neoplasm

new growth, benign or malignant

77

what are carcinoid tumors

most common tumor of small bowel have a benign appearance but have potential to become malignant

78

what radiographic appearance does lymphomas produce

stacked coin which is caused by thickening coarsening and possible hemorrhage of mucosal wall

79

what radiographic appearance does adenocarcinomas produce

napkin ring defects within the lumen may lead to complete obstruction

80

what is the most frequent site for adenocarcinoma

duodenum and proximal jejunum

81

what are spur and malabsorption syndromes

condition in which GI tract is unable to process and absorb certain nutrients

82

what does spur and malabsorption syndromes look like radiographically

thickening of mucosal folds and poor definition of normal feathery appearance

83

what is celiac disease

form of sprue or malabsorption diseases that affects small bowel especially proximal duodenum

84

what is whipples disease

affects small bowel- dilation of small intestine, deposits of fat in bowel wall and mesenteric nodules

85

what are the 4 small bowel procedures

UGI-small bowel combo, small bowel, enteroclysis, intubation method

86

what types of study is a enteroclysis

double contrast

87

what are the clinical indications of enteroclysis

ileus, crohns or malabsorption syndrom

88

in an UGI-SBFT, after the UGI exam is performed the patient drinks a second cup of barium and how many min radiograph is performed

30 min centering high for proximal small bowel- then every 15 minutes

89

For small bowel a radiograph should be take every ____ minutes up to 2 hours then _ every hour after

15-30 minutes then every 1 hour

90

what is the disadvantage of enteroclysis

increased patine discomfort and possibility of bowel perforation during catheter placement

91

During a enteroclysis a special catheter is placed where

duodenojejunal junction

92

what is colitis?

inflammatoryu condition of the large intestine, intestinal mucosa thick and rigid

93

what appearance radiographically does colitis have

saw tooth appears from chronic inflammation and spasm

94

what is ulcerative colitis

severe form of colitis

95

what appearance radiographically does ulcerative colitis have

cobblestone appearance along mucosa

96

long term bouts of ulcerative colitis may lead to what?

stovepipe or leadpipe colon-loss of haustral marking

97

what is diverticulum

outputting of the mucosal wall

98

what is diverticulosis

condition of having numerous diverticula

99

what is diverticulitis

inflames diverticula due to infection

100

diverticula are best demonstrated with what

double contrast barium enema

101

what is intussusception

telescoping or invagination of one part of intestine to another

102

what does the barium do on a be with intussusception

mushroom shaped dilation

103

what is annular carcinoma

typical form of colon cancer

104

what appearance radiographically does annular carcinoma produce

apple core or napkin ring appearance as tumor grown and infiltrates bowel wall

105

what are polyps

saclike projections that project inward into the lumen of the intestine

106

what best demonstrates polyps of the large intesine

BE, CT and endo

107

what is volvulus

twisting of portion of intestine on its own mesentery

108

where are volvulus found

portions of jejunum, and ileum or cecum and sigmoid

109

what ages and gender is volvulus most common in

males 20-50 years old

110

what appearance radiographically does volvulus have

"beak" sign-narrowing

111

what is cecal volvulus

involves cecum and ascending colon

112

in the intubation method of small bowel, Placing patient in what position may aid in passes of tube from stomach into duodenum by gastric peristalsis.

RAO

113

what is intubation method used for

to relieve post operative distention

114

what kind of catheter do they used in intubation method

miller-abbot tube

115

for small bowel series what should you do on asthenic patients to separate overlying loops of bowel

place patient in trendelenburg position

116

before a barium enema you should make sure the patient has not had what exams that could weaken the wall of the intestine

sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy

117

what is the substance that produces frequent bowel movements by increasing peristalsis in large (and sometimes small) intestine and accelerates passage of intestinal contents.

cathartics

118

3 most common type of enema tips

plastic disposable, rectal retention, and contrast retention

119

3 most common type of enema tips

plastic disposable, rectal retention, and contrast retention

120

what type of tip should only be inserted by rad and under fluoro for danger of intentional rupture

retention catheters

121

what type of catheter do you need a separate tip to inject air for a double contrast BE

contrast retention

122

what is the recommended range of weight to volume for single contrast BE

15% and 25%

123

what is the recommended range of weight to volume for double contrast BE

75% and 95%

124

what is the weight to volume for a evacuative proctography

100%

125

what is the weight to volume for a evacuative proctography

100%

126

what is the temperature for barium prep to make an anesthetic effect to increase retention of contrast

40-50 degrees

127

what is the temperature for barium prep to make an anesthetic effect to increase retention of contrast

40-50 degrees

128

what can be added to barium to reduce spasms

lidocaine

129

if spasms occur during an exam what can be injected intravenously

glucagon

130

what position should the patient be in when inserting a tip

sims-35-40 on left side

131

what does the sims position do for the patient

relaxes the ab muscles and decreases pressure in abdomen

132

how far should the total insertion of the tip be

4 inches

133

how should the tip be inserted

1-1 1/4 anteriorly then aimed toward umbilicus superiorly

134

the IV poled the enema bas if on should be no higher than

24 inches above the x-ray table

135

what is the function of evacuative proctography-defacography

functional study of anus and rectum that is conducted during the evacuation and rest phases of defecation

136

what is rectocele

blind pouch of rectum caused by weakening of anterior or posterior wall

137

what is rectal intussusception

telescoping or invagination of rectal portion of bowel

138

what is rectal prolapse

protrusion of rectal tissue through the anus to the exterior of the body

139

what is the commercially prepared ready to use contrast in evacuative proctography-defacography

anatrast

140

what is the purpose of a colostomy BE

to assess for proper healing, obstruction of leakage or to perform pre surgical evaluation

141

Methylcellulose is introduced into the small intestine during an enteroclysis to

dilate the loops of small intestine

142

What are 4 reasons to not use laxatives on a BE

Gross bleeding
Sever diarrhea
Obstruction
Inflammaotory condition