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Flashcards in Cervical Counterstrain Deck (22)
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Which vertebrae has the transverse foramina for the vertebral artery

C1 atlas
- all cervical vertebrae has it but it originates here
- the exception is C7. The vertebral arteries DONT pass through here


What muscles are AC1 associated with?

What is the treatment and location of tenderpoint as well

Rectus capitis anterior

Rectus capitis lateralis

Point located at posterior aspect aspect of ascending Ramus of the mandible at the level of the earlobe

Treatment = marked rotation away (with minor sidebending to help)


What muscles are AC1 lateral associated with?

What is the location and treatment position

Same as AC1

Location = lateral aspect of the C1 transverse process midway between Ramus of mandible and the mastoid process
- have patient jut jaw forward and feel for knob

Treatment = marked rotation away (with minor flexion and sidebending to help)


What muscles are AC2-AC6 associated with?

What is the location and treatment position also

The scalenes
- **note that AC2 is associated specifically w/ the middle scalene

Location = Anteriolateral aspect of the anterior tubercle of the respective transverse process

Treatment = FSARA


What muscles are AC7 and AC8 associated with?

Location and treatment positions


Tender points for each are pressed differently
- AC7 = superior -> inferior on the clavicular attachment
- AC8 = posterior inferior and lateral on the sternal attachment

Treatment for C7 = FSTRA

Treatment for C8 = FSARA


What muscles are PC1 and PC1 occiput associated with?

Location and treatment of tenderpoint also

Splenius capitis

Location for PC1 = just lateral to the external occipital protuberance (inion) along the inferior nuchal line (just 1cm inferior to the inion)

Treatment for PC1 = marked flexion

Location for PC1 occiput = on the inferior nuchal line midway between inion and mastoid

Treatment for PC1 occiput = marked extension


What muscles are PC2 occiput associated with?

Location and treatment position also

Semispinalis Capitis muscles

Location = on the inferior nuchal line just lateral to PC1 (2-3 cm from Inion)

Treatment = marked extension


What special symptom is PC3 sometimes associated w/?

Patients that have vertigo


What two PC tender points are the only flexion ones?

PC1 = flexion


*all the others are extension or ESARA*


How do you adjust treatment position of AC1?

Fine tuning revolves around
- very minor flexion
- very minor sidebending away


How to fine tune AC1 lateral?

Fine tuning revolves Around
- slight sidebending either way


What are the atypical cervical vertebrae and why are they atypical?

C1 (atlas)
- has no body
- has no spinous process

C2 (axis)
- has a bifid spinous process
- has dens processes


anterior scalenes

Origin = Anterior tubercles of C3-C6

Insertion = scalene tubercle of first rib

Innervation = C4-7

**Function to elevate rib 1


middle scalene

Origin = Transverse process of vertebrae C2-7

Insertion = groove of subclavian artery on rib 1

Innervation = C3-7

Function to elevate rib 1


rectus capitis anterior

Origin = C1 and its transverse process

Insertion = inferior surface of basilar occipital bone

Innervation = C1-2

Functions to flex the head at the Atlanta-occipital joint


Rectus capitis lateralis

Origin = Superior surface of the transverse process of the atlas vertebrae

Insertion = inferior surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone

Innervation = C1-2

Functions to flex the head laterally to the same side


longus capitis

Origin = Transverse processes of C3-6

Insertion = inferior the basilar occipital bone

Innervation = C1-3

Functions to flex the head


Longus coli muscles

- originate = anterior tubercles of C3-5
- Insert = anterior tubercles of atlas
- functions to flex the neck anterior and laterally w/ rotation opposite

- originate = anterior surface of T1-3
- insert = anterior tubercles of C5-6
- functions to do the same

- originate = anterior surfaces of C5-7
- inserts = anterior surface of C2-4
- same function as above

**all innervated by C2-6**


how do atlas (C1) and axis (C2) vertebrae differ from each other

- no body present
- no spinous process present
- has anterior arch and tubercle
- has the inital transverse foramina for vertebral artery
*C2-6 also have transverse foramina BUT NOT C7*

- smallbody compared to other cervical vertebra
- bifid spinous process is present (C3-6 also have bifid processes, BUT NOT C7)
- has dens (odontoblasts processes


PC2 tenderpoint

Location = superiolateral aspect of C2 spinous process

Treatment = ESARA


PC 3 tenderpoint

Location = inferiolateral aspects of spinous process of C2

Treatment = FSARA


PC4-PC8 tenderpoints

Location = inferiorlateral aspects of the tip of the spinous process of (PC#-1) vertebrae

I.e = PC4 = inferolateral aspect of C3 spinous process

Treatment = ESARA