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Flashcards in Ch. 1 Deck (29)
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1

biosphere

the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life

the sum of all the planet's ecosystems

2

ecosystem

all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact

a biological community & its physical environment

3

community

an assemblage of all the organisms living together and potentially interacting in a particular area

4

population

a group of individuals belonging to one species & living in the same geographic area

5

organism

an individual living thing, such as a bacterium, fungus, protist, plant, or animal

6

organ system

a group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions

7

organ

a structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions

8

tissue

an integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both

9

cell

a basic unit of living matter separated from its environment by a plasma membrane

the fundamental structural unit of life

10

organelle

a membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell

11

molecule

a group of 2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

12

emergent properties

new properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement & interactions of parts as complexity increases

13

producer

an organism that makes organic food molecules from CO2, H2O, and other inorganic raw materials

a plant, alga, or autotrophic bacterium

14

consumer

an organism that obtains its food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants

15

systems biology

an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems

16

prokaryotic cell

a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus & other membrane-enclosed organelles

found only in the domains Bacteria & Archaea

17

eukaryotic cell

a type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus & other membrane-enclosed organelles

all organisms except bacteria & archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells

18

gene

a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)

most of the genes of a eukaryote r located in its chromosomal DNA; a few are carried by the DNA of mitochondria & chloroplasts

19

species

a group whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics & have the ability to interbreed & produce viable, fertile offspring

20

domain

a taxonomic category above the kingdom level

the 3 domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria, & Eukarya

21

Bacteria

one of 2 prokaryotic domains of life, the other being Archaea

22

Archaea

1 of 2 prokaryotic domains of life, the other being Bacteria

23

Eukarya

the domain that includes all eukaryotic organisms

24

evolution

descent w/ modification

the idea that living species r descendants of ancestral species that were different from present-day ones

also the genetic changes in a population over generations

25

natural selection

a process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce that r organisms w/ other characteristics

26

hypothesis

(hypotheses)

a tentative explanation a scientists propses for a specific phenomenon that has been observed

27

theory

a widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope & supported by a large body of evidence

28

controlled experiment

a component of the process of science whereby a scientist carries out 2 parallel tests, an experimental test & a control test

the experimental test differs from the control by one factor, the variable

29

technology

the practical application of scientific knowledge