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Flashcards in Ch. 3 Deck (54)
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1

organic compound

a chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually synthesized by cells

2

hydrocarbon

a chemical compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen

3

carbon skeleton

the chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule

4

isomer

organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different properties

5

functional group

an assemblage of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions

6

hydrophilic

"water-loving"

pertaining to polar, or charged, molecules (or parts of molecules) that are soluble in water

7

hydroxyl group

in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom

organic compounds containing these groups = alcohols

8

carbonyl group

in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom

if carbon of the group is @ end = aldehyde

if carbon is w/in the chain = ketone

9

carboxyl group

in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group

 

10

carboxylic acid

an organic compound containing a carboxyl group

acts as an acid

11

amino group

in an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms

acts as a base

12

amine

an organic compound w/ 1+ amino groups

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phosphate group

a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to 4 oxygen atoms

compounds w/ phosphate groups = organic phosphates

14

methyl group

in an organic molecule, a carbon bonded to 3 hydrogens

compounds w/ methyl groups = methylated compounds

15

macromolecule

a giant molecule in a living organism formed by the joining of smaller molecules

a protein, lipid, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid

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polymer

a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain

17

monomer

a chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer

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dehydration reaction

a chemical process in which 2 molecules become covalently bonded to each other w/ the removal of a water molecule

also called condensation

19

hydrolysis

a chemical process in which polymers are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers

an essential part of digestion

20

enyzme

a protein (or RNA molecule) that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction w/out itself being changed into a different molecule in the process

21

carbohydrate

member of the class of biological molecules consisting of simple single-monomer sugars (monosaccharides), 2-monomer sugars (disaccharides), & other multiunit sugars (polysaccharides)

22

monosaccharide

the simplest carbohydrate

a simple sugar w/ a molecular formula that is generally some multiple of CH2O

monosaccharides r the building blocks of disaccharides & polysaccharides

23

disaccharide

a sugar molecule consisting of 2 monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction

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polysaccharide

a carbohydrate polymer consisting of 2 hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides (sugars) linked by dehydration synthesis

25

starch

a storage polysaccharide found in the roots of plants & certain other cells

a polymer of glucose

26

glycogen

an extensively branched polysaccharide of many glucose monomers

serves as an energy-storage molecule in liver & muscle cells

the animal equivalent of starch

27

cellulose

a large polysaccharide composed of many glucose monomers linked into cable-like fibrils that provide structural support in plant cell walls

28

chitin

a structural polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls & in the exoskeletons of arthropods

29

lipid

an organic compound consisting of mainly carbon & hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic

lipids include fats, phospholipids, & steroids

insoluble in water

30

hydrophobic

"water-fearing"

pertaining to nonpolar molecules (or parts of molecules) that don't dissolve in water