Flashcards in Ch. 1 - 7 review Deck (78)
Each skeletal muscle contains _______ tissue, __________ tissue, _______ and ______ ______.
Sliding-filament theory - resting phase (calcium? tension?)
No calcium present
Sliding-filament theory - Excitation-contraction coupling phase (calcium? actin/myosin? cross bridges?)
Binding of Actin and Myosin
Cross Bridges Flex
Sliding-filament theory - contraction phase (myosin?)
Myosin detaches and re-cocks
Sliding-filament theory - Recharge phase (myosin)
Re-activation of myosin head by ATP
Sliding-filament theory - Relaxation phase (calcium)
Calcium pumped back into sarcoplasmic reticulum
Arrival of the action potential at the nerve terminal causes the release of __________.
Once a sufficient amount of acetylcholine is released, and _______ ________ is generated across the ___________, and the ______ contracts.
Once a sufficient amount of acetylcholine is released, and ACTION POTENTIAL is generated across the SARCOLEMMA, and the FIBER contracts.
The extent of control of a muscle depends on the number of _______ _______ within each ______ _____.
The extent of control of a muscle depends on the number of MUSCLE FIBERS within each MOTOR UNIT.
muscles that function with great precision may have as few as ___ muscle fiber(s) per ______ _____.
ONE muscle fiber per motor unit.
muscles that require less precision may have several _________ fibers for one motor unit.
several HUNDRED fibers for one motor unit.
ALL of the muscle fibers in the motor unit contract and develop force at the same time.
Muscle fiber type I (slow or fast)
Muscle fiber type II (slow or fast)
Motor units are composed of muscle fibers with specific ___________ and ____________ characteristics that determine their functional capacity.
MORPHOLOGICAL and PHYSIOLOGICAL characteristics.
Force output can be varied through change in the ________ of activation of _______ ______ or _________ of activated ________ ______.
Force output can be varied through change in the FREQUENCY of activation of MOTOR UNITS or NUMBER of activated MOTOR UNITS.
How can athletes improve force production?
-Recruit _______ ______ or _______ groups during an activity
-Increase the ______-________ area of muscles involved
-Use __________ during training to develop strength early in the range of motion
recruit LARGE MUSCLES or MUSCLE GROUPS during activity
Increase the CROSS-SECTIONAL area of muscles involved in the desire activity
Use PRELOADING during training.
____________ are specialized sensory receptors that provide the CNS with information needed to maintain muscle tone and perform complex coordinated movements.
-Information concerning kinesthetics sense, or conscious appreciation of the position of body parts with respect to gravity.
-Processed at subconscious levels
_______ ______ are proprioceptors that consist of several modified muscle fibers enclosed in a sheath of connective tissue.
______ _______ ______ (_ _ _) are proprioceptors located in tendons near the myotendinous junction.
Golgi Tendon Organs (GTO)
(nerve system through the heart) The strands that run along the ventricles.
__________ transports oxygen and serves as an acid-base buffer.
RBCs facilitate ________ _______ removal.
The flow of energy in a biological system; the conversation of macronutrients into biological useable forms of energy.
The breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules; associated with the release of energy.
The synthesis of larger molecules from smaller molecules; can be accomplished using the energy released from catabolic reactions.
Energy-releasing reactions that are generally catabolic.
Require energy and include anabolic processes and the contraction of muscle.