Flashcards in Ch 1: Introduction to microbiology Deck (22):
What is microbiology?
study of microorganisms
What is the resolution of the unaided human eye?
0.2 mm or 200 um
What did Robert Hooke contribute to the study of microbiology?
Used a microscope to first describe cells
-Came up w/ Cell Theory: all living things made up of cells
What did Antonie van Leeuwenhoek contribute to the study of microbiology?
Used a microscope to first see microbes
-called the animalcules
What did Louis Pasteur contribute to the study of microbiology?
Broth and swan neck flask experiments
-Disproved spontaneous generation
-Yeasts convert sugar to alcohol
-Bacteria convert alcohol to acid (called disease)
What is epidemiology?
Studying disease trends in populations
Are microbial causes of death in the U.S. higher or lower than in the developing world?
Microbial causes of death are lower in the U.S.
What are the biggest factors determining life expectancy in developing countries?
Access to clean water and Healthcare
What are some "good" microbes used for?
-Cleaning oil spills and chemical wastes
What is the role of normal flora (microbiome) in the human body?
Long term antibiotic use kills good bacteria and causes C. diff to take over
What did Ignaz Semmelweis and Oliver Wendell Holmes contribute to the study of microbiology?
Showed that mothers who delivered their children w/ midwives had a lower instance of developing childbed fever then mothers who delivered w/ doctors/med students
What is the simplest and most effective method for reducing transmission of human diseases?
What did Joseph Lister contribute to microbiology?
Aseptic Technique to prevent infection during surgeries
What did Edward Jenner contribute to microbiology?
Created first vaccine for variola major (smallpox)
What did Alexander Fleming contribute to microbiology?
Developed first antibiotic w/ penicillin
What has overuse/misuse of antibiotics caused?
antibiotic resistant superbugs
-methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Cells are the smallest unit of life. What do all cells have?
Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, Metabolism, DNA->RNA->Proteins
What are cell membranes made of?
Phospholipid bilayer w/ embedded proteins
-H2O outside, hydrophobic center, H2O inside
How does genetic information flow?
What are Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?
Prokaryote: (before nucleus) simple cells that lack nucleus, organelles, and complex organization
Eukaryote: (true nucleus) complex cells w/ nucleus, organelles, and compartmentalization
What are the three domains of life?
Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya