Ch 1: Introduction to microbiology Flashcards Preview

BIO 246: Microbiology of Human Disease > Ch 1: Introduction to microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 1: Introduction to microbiology Deck (22):
1

What is microbiology?

study of microorganisms

2

What is the resolution of the unaided human eye?

0.2 mm or 200 um

3

What did Robert Hooke contribute to the study of microbiology?

Used a microscope to first describe cells
-Came up w/ Cell Theory: all living things made up of cells

4

What did Antonie van Leeuwenhoek contribute to the study of microbiology?

Used a microscope to first see microbes
-called the animalcules

5

What did Louis Pasteur contribute to the study of microbiology?

Broth and swan neck flask experiments
-Disproved spontaneous generation
-Supported Biogenesis
-Yeasts convert sugar to alcohol
-Bacteria convert alcohol to acid (called disease)

6

What is epidemiology?

Studying disease trends in populations

7

Are microbial causes of death in the U.S. higher or lower than in the developing world?

Microbial causes of death are lower in the U.S.

8

What are the biggest factors determining life expectancy in developing countries?

Access to clean water and Healthcare

9

What are some "good" microbes used for?

-Cleaning oil spills and chemical wastes
-Make alcohol
-Produce vaccines

10

What is the role of normal flora (microbiome) in the human body?

Healthy gut

Long term antibiotic use kills good bacteria and causes C. diff to take over

11

What did Ignaz Semmelweis and Oliver Wendell Holmes contribute to the study of microbiology?

Showed that mothers who delivered their children w/ midwives had a lower instance of developing childbed fever then mothers who delivered w/ doctors/med students
-cleaner hands

12

What is the simplest and most effective method for reducing transmission of human diseases?

hand washing

13

What did Joseph Lister contribute to microbiology?

Aseptic Technique to prevent infection during surgeries

14

What did Edward Jenner contribute to microbiology?

Created first vaccine for variola major (smallpox)

15

What did Alexander Fleming contribute to microbiology?

Developed first antibiotic w/ penicillin

16

What has overuse/misuse of antibiotics caused?

antibiotic resistant superbugs
-methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

17

Cells are the smallest unit of life. What do all cells have?

Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, Metabolism, DNA->RNA->Proteins

18

What are cell membranes made of?

Phospholipid bilayer w/ embedded proteins
-H2O outside, hydrophobic center, H2O inside

19

How does genetic information flow?

DNA->RNA->Protein

20

What are Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?

Prokaryote: (before nucleus) simple cells that lack nucleus, organelles, and complex organization

Eukaryote: (true nucleus) complex cells w/ nucleus, organelles, and compartmentalization

21

What are the three domains of life?

Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya

22

How do you name using Binomial Nomenclature?

Genus and Species
-Genus: Escherichia is capitalized and italicized
-Species: coli is lower case and italicized
-E. coli