Ch. 10 Concrete Construction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 10 Concrete Construction Deck (88):
1

Advantages of concrete (4)

Produced from RAW materials (locally available/low in cost).
Does NOT BURN.
Resists INSECTS and effects with contact of SOIL
Create a variety of architectural SHAPES

2

Concrete produced from: (3)

Portland cement
Aggregates
Water
*mortar=Portland cement, sand, lime, water*

3

Aggregates make up a ______ percentage of TOTAL VOLUME of concrete

Large

4

Curing concrete requires: (2)

Correct hydration
Temperature control

5

Hardening of concrete is chemical process called

Hydration
*heat of hydration-cement forms gel, gel gives off heat*

6

Keeping concrete moist (4)

Sprinkling.
Ponding.
Covering with plastic film.
Sealing compounds (to slow evaporation)

7

Temperature for concrete curing

Ideally between 50-70F
-at or above 100F not reach proper strength
-near freezing, harden slower
*massive structures, heat of hydration adversely affects strength*

8

During curing, concrete will _________. Concrete hardens ______. Normal design strength reached ______.

SHRINK slightly
InDEFINITELY at a gradual rate
AFTER 28 days

9

Concrete types (7)

Ordinary stone
Structural lightweight
Insulating lightweight
Gypsum
High early-strength
Expansive
Water-permeable

9

Coloring can be added for _______________. Such as coloring concrete when _____________.

Aesthetic or safety reasons.
It is placed over buried electric cables

10

Concrete.
Density reduced _____.
Flows more freely _____

Admixture, such as shale or clinker.
Superplasticizer

11

Ultimate compressive strength of concrete

2,500-6,000 psi

12

Techniques to reinforce concrete: (2)

Ordinary reinforcing
Prestressing reinforcing (pretensioning and posttensioning)

13

Ordinary reinforcing (3)
(Steps)

Concrete COMPACTED around rebar
Mechanical VIBRATOR
Concrete hardens and ADHERES to deformities on surface of bars

14

Ordinary reinforcing.
Job of design engineer to specify: (3)

Number of reinforcing bars
Their size (diameter)
Depth of concrete cover

15

Diameters of standard-size reinforcing bars

.375 - 2.257 inches

16

Fundamental tensile and compressive forces are ________ throughout a beam.

NOT UNIFORM
*Diagonal tension forces also must be resisted*

17

Vertical reinforcing bars are known as ____ and resist the ____ tension.

Stirrups
Diagonal

18

Concrete BEAMS are frequently cast in the shape of a _____.

Tee
*reinforcing steel placed in the bottom of the tee to resist TENSILE force*

19

Although the primary function of placing reinforcing steel in concrete is to resist _______ forces, the steel can also be used to support some of the _______ forces.

Tensile.
Compressive

20

Steel bars support some of the compressive load and also resist ____________ in the column from sources such as ____ and _____. Compressive forces in column great enough to cause steel bars to buckle. To avoid, lateral reinforcing provided ________.

Bending forces.
Wind.
Settling.

Around vertical bars

20

Ordinary reinforcing has inherent limitations.
Concrete beam/floor slab supports a load, concrete in the beam in tension is ___________.

Doing NO work

21

In ________, a _____________ is induced in the concrete before the load is applied

PreSTRESSing
Compressive force

22

Preloading of the steel creates ________ stresses in the concrete that counteract the ______ stresses that result when the loads are applied.

Compressive
Tensile

23

Prestressing process requires _____ loads to be applied to the concrete along the _______ of the beam. These loads can result in the _____ of the concrete over time.

Large
Axis
Shortening

24

The forces that are initially applied in the prestressing process are __________ than the forces theoretically needed to support the concrete and the applied loads.

Slightly higher

25

In pretensioned concrete, ______ are stretched between anchors producing a ___________ in the steel. Concrete is then placed around the steel.

Steel strands
Tensile force

26

Pretensioned: After the concrete has hardened sufficiently, the force applied to the steel strands ________. As the force on the strands is released, the strands exert a ___________ on the concrete.

Is released
Compressive force

27

In pretensioned concrete, when the steel strands are released, the member usually takes on a _____________ deflection.

Slightly upward

28

In posttensioned, the reinforcing steel is not tensioned until ___________.

AFTER the concrete has hardened. (Post)

29

As a general rule, reinforcing steel ____________ in the course of firefighting operations unless it is necessary to ______.

Should not be cut
Rescue trapped victims

30

Cutting through reinforcing steel with saw or torch is ____________ because the steel is ____________. If they are cut, they are likely to ___________, injuring emergency responders. __________ may also lead to the failure of the concrete structural element, resulting in a collapse or partial collapse.

Particularly dangerous in POSTTENSIONED concrete
Not bonded to the concrete
Spring out of the concrete
RELEASING the posttensioned element

31

_____ is placed into forms at the building site as a wet mass and hardens in the forms OR
_____ is concrete that is poured into forms as liquid and assumes the shape of the form in the position and location it will be used.

Cast-in-place

32

Cast in place permits the designer to cast the concrete in a _____________.

Wide variety of shapes

33

Wet concrete is transported from the truck to formwork either by _____ or ______.

Hoisting it in large buckets
Pumping

34

Great care must be exercised in the ____, ____, and ____ of concrete to ensure good quality.

Mixing
Placing
Curing

35

The ______ of concrete is of significance to firefighters. Concrete that is of poor structural quality will behave poorly under fire conditions by ______ and even _________.

Quality

Spalling
Breaking apart

36

The single MOST IMPORTANT factor in determining the ultimate STRENGTH of concrete is the __________.

Water-to-cement ratio

37

An amount of water GREATER than required for curing is added to the concrete mix to _________________ as its placed in the forms.

Increase its workability

38

The presence of ________ in the concrete also produces _______ due to ____________.

Excess moisture
Spalling in the concrete
Freezing conditions OR the heat of fire

39

When concrete __________________, it's quality checked by ________ known as a _______.

Arrives at the job site
Administering a test
Slump test

40

Slump test is used to ___________ by measuring the amount that a ____________ of the concrete settles or _______ after it is removed from a __________ test mold.

Check the moisture content of concrete
Small, cone-shaped sample
Slumps
Standard-sized

41

Concrete with ______ slump will fail the test and may be rejected by the ____________.

Excessive
Structural engineer

42

Another method of testing concrete is to _______________ and subject them to ___________.

Make small test cylinders of a concrete batch
Compression testing

43

Compression test: this method is ______ but has the disadvantage of requiring that the _______________ before the results are known. This test would be __________ if the concrete were ultimately found to be _________.

Accurate
Concrete be permitted to harden
Very costly
Unsatisfactory

44

Large cast-in-place structures cannot be cast in _________. _________ unavoidably occur between _____________.

One operation

Construction joints
Successive pours

45

Cast-in-place.
To provide for transfer of __________ from one placement to the next, the reinforcement steel will _________.

Loads and forces
Overlap the joints

46

The following are common cast in place structural systems: (3)

Flat slab
Slab and beam
Waffle construction

47

_______ is a simple system that consists of concrete slab supported by concrete COLUMNS

Flat-slab concrete frames
*slab with columns*

48

Flat-slab concrete frames
The slab of concrete varies in thickness from _________. _______ stresses develop in the concrete where the slab intersects the supporting column.

6 to 12 in.
Shear

49

Flat-slab
In a building that will have heavy live loads, the area around the columns is reinforced with additional concrete in the form of ____ or _______. If the building will support light loads, additional reinforcing _________ and this is called ________.

Drop panels or mushroom capitals

Is not necessary
Flat plate

50

_______ is a simple system that consists of concrete slab supported by concrete BEAMS

Slab and beam framing
*aka concrete joist construction*

51

Slab and beam
This framing system is ________ and is best suited for buildings with ____ floor loads. Slabs in this type of construction can sometimes be as thin as ______.

Extremely light weight
Light
2 inches

52

Slab and beam
Due to the thin slab, the concrete beams must be ______ in order to provide adequate support. The spacing often gives an appearance similar to ________ and is sometimes referred to as ___________.

Closely spaced
Wood joists
Concrete joist construction

53

Slab and beam
Concrete beams run MAINLY in one direction, _____________ slab.
Concrete beams running in two directions, ______ construction.
Two-way framing where spans are ____ and _____ loadings are high.

One-way reinforced
Two-way slab
Short
Floor

54

Bldgs using ________ are often highly susceptible to fire damage due to their thin nature. Fire proofing is _________.

Slab and beam
Often necessary

55

Waffle construction
Pattern result from placement of _______ over which ________ is placed.
This design provides a ______ slab while reducing the weight of _______ in the ____ half of the slab.

Square forms
Wet concrete

Thicker
Unnecessary concrete
Bottom

56

Waffle
Reinforcing steel placed in the bottom of the formwork provides reinforcement in ___________. Slabs of this type, therefore, are also known as __________.

Two directions
Two-way slabs

57

A poured concrete slab can be supported by _________ instead of _________.

Structural steel beams
Concrete beams
*Type 1, must be provided fireproofing*

58

______ concrete is placed in forms and cured at a location other than the construction test.
*Poured and set according to specification in a controlled environment*

Precast

59

The precast structural shapes, including ____, ____, and _____ are transported to the job site and hoisted into position.

Slabs
Wall panels
Columns

60

Several advantages to using precast concrete: (1 of 3)

Higher degree of quality control
-sheltered environment/not exposed to weather
-high degree of quality control
-mixing and pouring more mechanized

61

Several advantages of using precast (2 of 3)

Work can proceed more quickly
-no need for formwork at site
-no need to wait for concrete to harden
-no need to construct/remove forms, add'l costs

62

Several advantages of using precast (3 of 3)

Precast concrete sandwich panels can be produced using polystyrene core (insulating properties)

63

Major disadvantage to using precast is:

Need to transport the finished components to the job site.-Transportation increases cost and limits the size of the shapes.

64

Precast concrete structures have more in common with _____ than with cast-in-place concrete buildings.

Steel-framed buildings

65

Precast concrete SLABS for floor systems can be cast in standard shapes that include: (4)

Solid slabs (short spans up to approx. 30 ft)
Hollow-core slabs
Single tee slabs (tee slabs - spans up to 120 ft)
Double tee slabs

66

A common form of construction with PRECAST is known as _________. Reinforced wall panels cast in horizontal casting beds. After _________, the wall panels are tilted up into the vertical position by a crane. Temporary bracing until roofs or permanent horizontal.

Tilt-up (precast) OR
Tilt-slab

Concrete has cured

67

Tilt-up walls can be ______ stories in height. Tilt-up walls can support several types of roof including: (4)

Several

Timber beams
Precast slabs
Steel beams
Steel trusses

68

Precast structural elements are usually _______ than corresponding cast-in-place components. However, the use of precast concrete results in a ___________________ that is inherent with cast-in-place concrete frames.

Lighter

Loss of continuity

69

In a precast concrete structure, the connections between the individual components are _________ of structural engineering.

Critical aspect

70

A variety of techniques, such as _____, _____ and ______ can be used to connect precast structural elements.

Bolting
Welding
POSTtensioning

71

Precast.
Simple designs of this type are not inherently rigid and the slabs need to be ________ to resist _______.

Laterally tied together
Horizontal forces

72

Short steel beam cast into the precast column.
Precast beams are secured to the column through the use of _________ cast into the columns or though the use of ___________.

Steel angles
Posttensioned steel cables

73

When precast beams are to be supported by columns, the beams may be supported by _______ cast into the column. _______ is a ledge that projects from the column and supports the beam.

Corbel (also known as a bracket)

74

Very common precast for parking garages.
The _____ and ______ make precast structural systems a practical choice.

Floor loads
Span lengths

75

Concrete
Buildings supported by a ________ are usually enclosed by a non-bearing curtain wall.

Concrete frame

76

Curtain wall/concrete frame.
The choice of material is determined by _______, ________ and ______.

Architectural style
Thermal insulation properties
Cost

77

________ concrete systems may be somewhat more vulnerable to failure than _______________ concrete.

Prestressed
Ordinary reinforced

78

Reinforcing cables and rods used in prestressed systems are made of high-strength steels that have lower yield points, can yield at a temp of _______.

Around 752F

79

Concrete structural systems.
Fire resistance of concrete assembly is affected by such variables as: (5)

Density
Thickness
Quality
Load supported by concrete
Depth of concrete cover over reinforcing bars
**concrete = 1 to 4 hrs**

80

Structural lightweight concrete has a _____ density than ordinary concrete and has a _________ thermal conductivity. Therefore, it acts as a ______________ against a heat of fire than ordinary concrete. However, it is not used for _____________.

Lower.
Lower

Better insulator.
Load-bearing members

81

__________ concrete buildings have an advantage over _________ buildings because of the continuity of the assembly provides an inherent restraint to movement of the ___________, such as _________.

Cast-in-place
Precast
Intersecting members
Columns and beams

81

Spalling of concrete will result in ________ and __________.

Failure of the reinforcing bars
Failure of the structural assembly

82

Spalling.
The expansion of water creates ________ forces within the concrete.

Tensile

84

EXTENT to which concrete undergoes spalling depends on ________________. (2)

Amount of excess MOISTURE.
Length of TIME since concrete was placed
*Extent=EMT*

85

SEVERITY of spalling also depends on: (2)

DURATION and SEVERITY structures exposure to the fire
*severity IS severity!*

86

Concrete has good insulating properties and tends to retain the heat of an exposing fire and release it slowly, similar to masonry oven. This general effect is referred to as _______.

Heat sink effect