Ch. 14 Non-Fire Bldg Collapse Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 14 Non-Fire Bldg Collapse Deck (45):
1

Causes of NONfire building collapse.
Two broad categories:

Nature-caused.
Human-caused

2

For some no warning:

For others can be anticipated (w/o specific location):

Earthquakes and explosions

Tornadoes and hurricanes

3

When confronted by partially collapsed bldg, FF's must assume remaining building _________.

Can be seriously weakened (NOT rest will collapse)

4

Non-fire bldg collapse causes (6)

Earthquakes.
Mudslides*
Floods*
Snow.
Poor construction methods.
Explosion.

5

Concerns common to collapse/partial collapse (7)

RUPTURE of gas distribution mains (only "rupture").
Loss of LANDLINE communication.
*Utilities/roads for DAYS/EVEN WEEKS.*
Multiple bldg collapses.
Fires following event.
Impairment of bldg life safety systems.
Fires when utilities restored

6

Areas for earthquakes p. 394

West coast, including *ALASKA* and Hawaii PARTICULARLY vulnerable

7

Earthquakes, buildings more at risk for partial/total collapse than newer buildings

Built prior to 1930s

8

Factors that contribute to extent of building damage and potential collapse during earthquakes (2)

LOCATION of bldg relative to responsible fault and epicenter of earthquake.
SOIL conditions beneath bldg, especially potential for liquefaction of loose, sandy soil

9

Seismic design consideration

Lateral bracing

10

Critical buildings have higher requirements. Critical are: (3)

Hospitals.
Command CENTERS.
Other important public uses

10

Earthquakes will likely be followed by ________, some of which may be ____________ as the original.

Aftershocks.
NEARLY as strong

11

Potential for landslides occurs _________. Although potential for landslide more likely during _____, they may occur ______.

Nearly everywhere.
Heavy rains or in conjunction with earthquakes.
Anytime

12

Forewarning/early warning signs of landslides (3)

Damage to underground utilities.
Cracking in roads.
Minor slides in area.

13

On hillsides prone to landslide, addition of ________________can be the trigger to a major landslide.

Groundwater through landscape watering OR
Broken water main

14

There are ____ specific model bldg code requirements to address LANDSLIDES. Environmental reports should _______ this issue and zoning regulations typically _______ it.

No.
Identify.
Address.
*fire service working with public works*

15

_____ is sinking or settling of land due to various natural and human-caused factors, such as removal of _____.

Subsidence (form of GRADUAL sinking).
Underground water or oil

16

Primary cause of subsidence in U.S. is ________________.

Removal of large amounts of underground WATER
**Definition=water OR oil, PRIMARY=water**

17

Subsidence.
Occurred in ______. Due to pumping oil in ____________.
Gradual AND more or less uniform when cause is removal of _______________.

Almost every state.
California, Louisiana, and Texas.
Underground liqUid (more or less Uniform)

18

_______ is a natural depression in a land surface formed by the collapse of a cavern roof. Generally occurs in _________ regions. This type of failure represents an ___________ of subsidence.

Sinkhole.
Limestone.
Extreme form.
*cavern/cavity = sinkhole*

19

Like landslides, sinkholes are _________. Collapse of ground surface into cavity. Cavity are usually created by __________.

Sudden events.
Interaction of groundwater with rock formations that are water soluble.
*subsidence=gradual. landslide and sinkhole=usually sudden*

20

Sinkholes can occur over areas that have been ____________ or more commonly in urban areas as the result of ________.

Subjected to underground mining.
Water main breaks

20

Determining potential for subsidence and sinkholes is often done by ____________.

Examining historical records.

21

_______, especially those associated with _____ and ______, often result in catastrophic regional events.

High winds.
Tornadoes.
Hurricanes

22

In wind-borne debris regions, such as coastal areas subject to hurricanes where the basic wind speed is _______, window glazing is required to be impact-resistant. Residents may also employ special brackets, known as _____________, to provide additional reinforcement as storms approach.

110 mph or greater.
Wind clips

23

Building collapse can occur due to force associated with accumulated _____, _____ or both. These type of collapses can happen ________ and are usually ________.

Snow.
Water.

Without warning and isolated events

24

Another cause of bldg collapse is from ______. ______ can be simply described as water flowing where it is not normally expected.

Floods.
Floods

25

Damage from floods occurs in several ways: (2)

Water undermines the foundation, causing partial/total collapse.
House swept off of foundation, deposited in whole or part hundreds of feet from where it originally rested.

26

_____ are another required aspect of structural design considerations for a new building. Requirements vary depending whether or not building is also subject to ___________.

Flood loads.

High-velocity wave action

27

Flood loads
Foundation and structures are required to resist ____, ____, and _____.

Flotation, collapse, lateral movement

28

Structural design, including calculations, is typically reviewed during the plan review process ______ construction begins. Occasionally an ________ will slip through or there will be _________ that negatively impacts the integrity of design, resulting in partial or total collapse.

Before.
Inadequate design.
A field change

29

Poor or careless construction methods: (4)
(WITS end trying to figure this out)

TEMPORARY loads-temporary loads exceed final design loads.
SEQUENCING-improper sequencing of construction process.
WEAKNESS of building frame-temporary weakness, applies to POURED in place (not cast).
INSTABILITY of building frame-until final members in place, vulnerable to vertical and horizontal loads-temporary bracing

30

Common means of demolition (2)

Piecemeal demolition-performing using hand tools or machines AND
Controlled collapse.
*BOTH require well thought out plan*

31

4 means of controlled collapse

Crane with demolition ball.
Hydraulic pushed arms.
Wire rope pulling.
Explosives.

32

A primary GOAL of the demolition process must be:

To protect nearby structures

33

Piecemeal.
When removing PRIMARY structural members, there is _____ the potential for ________.
An unexpected collapse will likely involve ________ because it is likely to occur when building is occupied by workers involved in demo.

Always.
Unexpected collapse.

Rescue

34

Well planned and executed controlled collapse should result in _________ at the ground to be ___________. Rescue ________ be an issue.

A pile of debris.
Subsequently removed.
Should not

35

Rising concern with vacant bldgs are:

Problems with vandalism and scavenging

36

_______ is being accelerated by increased price of wood and metal.

Scavenging

37

May result in weakening of structure or even UNWANTED building collapse

Amateur scavenging
*Never WANT an amateur working with you*

38

During building demolition may also lead to an UNEXPECTED collapse.

Scavenging activities

39

Often, accidental explosions are the result of:

Natural gas leaks within a building

40

Common sources of explosions (BGDFM)

Boiler furnaces.
Gasoline vapors.
Finely powdered dust.
Storage of fireworks/blasting agents.
Methamphetamine laboratories (today's society)

41

"Deliberate explosions"

Terrorist activities

42

Deliberate USE of EXPLOSIVES

Gang/organized crime
*use - youse guys*

43

Other Causes of Collapse.
Collision of motor vehicle with a structure:
Aircraft crash into a structure:

Typically partial collapse.
Always followed by a fire.