CH. 10 PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY Flashcards Preview

EMT-P (PAR 212-PHARMACOLOGY) > CH. 10 PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH. 10 PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY Deck (128):
1

Schedule I

-high abuse potential -no recognized medical purpose ex. Heroin, marijuana, LSD

2

Schedule II

-high abuse potential -legitimate medical purpose ex. Fentanyl (Sublimaze), methylphenidate (Ritalin), cocaine

3

Schedule III

Lower potential for abuse than Schedule II medications ex. Hydrocodone (Vicodin), acetaminophen with codeine, ketamine

4

Schedule IV

Lower potential for abuse than Schedule III drugs ex. Diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan)

5

Schedule V

Lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV drugs ex. Narcotic cough medicines

6

Atropine, aspirin, digoxin, morphine all come from?

plant

7

Heparin, antivenom, thyroid preparations, insulin all come from?

animal

8

Streptokinase, numerous antibiotics come from?

microorganisms

9

Iron, magnesium sulfate, lithium, phosphorus, calcium all come from?

minerals

10

Define capsule and give example

powdered or solid medication enclosed in a dissolvable cylindrical gelatin shell ex. Acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Motrin), diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

11

Define tablet and give example

solid medication particles bound into a shape designed to dissolve or be swallowed ex. Aspirin (ASA), nitroglycerin SL

12

Define powder and give example

small particles of medication designed to be dissolved or mixed into a solution or liquid ex. glucagon, vecuronium (Norcuron)

13

Define drops and give example

sterile solution or non sterile liquid intended for direct administration into nose or ear ex. Neosynephrine (Afrin), tetracaine

14

Define skin preparation and give example

gel, ointment, or paste substance designed to permit transdermal (through the skin) absorption ex. nitroglycerin paste, fentanyl patch

15

Define suppository and give example

medication in a waxlike material that dissolves in the rectum or other body cavity ex. Promethazine (Phenergan), acetaminophen (Tylenol)

16

Define liquid and give example

medication dissolved or suspended in liquid intended for oral consumption ex. infant acetaminophen (Tylenol), cough syrup

17

Define inhaler/spray and give example

medication in gas or fine mist form intended for inhalation and absorption through lung, airway, or oral tissues ex. albuterol (Ventolin), nitroglycerin spray

18

Name this receptor: Vasoconstriction of arteries and veins

Alpha-1

19

Name this receptor: insulin restriction, glucagon secretion, inhibition of norepinephrine release

Alpha-2

20

Increased heart rate (chronotropic effect), increased myocardial contractility (inotropic effect), increased myocardial conduction (dromotropic effect), renin secretion for urinary retention

Beta-1

21

Bronchus and bronchiole relaxation, insulin secretion, uterine relaxation, arterial dilation in certain key organs

Beta-2

22

vasodilation of renal and mesenteric arteries (numerous receptor subtypes exist)

Dopaminergic

23

present at neuromuscular junction , allowing acetylcholine (ACh) to stimulate muscle contraction

Nicotinic

24

present in the heart; activated by ACh to offset sympathetic stimulation, decreasing heart rate, contractility, and electrical conduction velocity

Muscurinic-2

25

two medications with a similar effect combine to produce an effect greater than that of either medication individually ex. acetaminophen(Tylenol) and ibuprofen(Motrin, Advil)

addition or summation

26

two medications with a similar effect combine, and the resulting effect is greater than the sum of the effects of the medications ex. 1+1=6 IV opiod such as fentanyl (Sublimaze) given with IV benzodiazepines such as midazolum (Versed)

synergism

27

the effect of one medication is greatly enhanced by the presence of another medication, which does not have the ability to produce the same effect ex. promethazine (Phenergan) used to increase the effects of codeine or other antitussives (cough suppressants) for more improved relief of cough than antitussive alone

potentiation

28

the action of one medication increases or decreases the ability of another medication to be absorbed by the body. Medications that may increase or decrease the absorption of other medications that are taken orally ex. Ranitidine (Zantac), an H2 blocker that reduces absorption of ketoconazole (an anitfungal) or certain cephalosporin antibiotics

altered absorption

29

the presence of one medication alters the area available for the distribution of another medication in the body, which becomes important when both medications are bound to the same site, such as plasma proteins. If proteins are already occupied by one medication, toxic levels of the other medication may develop ex. the anticonvulsant medication valproic acid (Depakote, Depakene) competes with another anticonvulsant medication, phenytoin (Dilantin), causing potentially increased or decreased serum levels and possibly unpredictable clinical effects

altered distribution

30

the action of one medication increases or decreases the metabolism of one medication within the body ex. ethanol administered to patients who have been poisoned with ethylene glycol (antifreeze).

altered metabolism

31

medications may increase or decrease the functioning of the kidneys or other route of elimination, influencing the amount of or duration of effect of another medication in the body ex. ethanol decreases the metabolism of warfarin (Coumadin), which may predispose the patient to bleeding risk

altered elimination

32

two medications, each producing opposite effects, are present simultaneously, resulting in minimal or no clinical changes ex. sodium nitroprusside (Nitride) and dobutamine (Dobutrex) are often given simultaneously for cariogenic shock.

physiologic (drug) antagonism

33

Two medications bind together in the body, creation an inactive substance ex. Digoxin-specific antibodies are administered to patients with toxicity to the medication digoxin. These medications combine, rendering digoxin molecules inactive

neutralization

34

GI motility

ability of medication to move through the GI tract to be absorbed into the bloodstream

35

GI pH

perfusion of the GI system (may be decreased during systemic shock)

36

presence of food, liquids, or chemicals in the stomach

injury or bleeding in the GI system, both alter GI motility, decreasing the time that oral medications can be absorbed

37

Intraosseous Site: Proximal tibia Vein?

popliteal vein

38

Intraosseous Site: Femur Vein?

femoral vein

39

Intraosseous Site: Distal tibia (medial malleolus) Vein?

great saphenous vein

40

Intraosseous Site: Proximal humerus Vein?

axillary vein

41

Intraosseous Site: Manubrium (sternum) vein?

internal mammary and azygos veins

42

the early phase of cardiac repolarization, wherein the heart muscle cannot be stimulated to depolarize; also known as the effective refractory period

absolute refractory period

43

the process by which the molecules of a substance are moved from the site of entry or administration into systemic circulation

absorption

44

an enzyme that breaks down acetycholine

acetylcholinesterase

45

a medication that has undergone biotransformation and is able to alter a cellular process or body function

active metabolite

46

the process of molecules binding with carrier proteins when energy is used to move the molecules against a concentration gradient

active transport

47

the ability of a medication to bind with a particular receptor site

affinity

48

the group of medications that initiates or alters a cellular activity by attaching to receptor sites, prompting a cellular response

agonist medications

49

an extreme systemic form of an allergic reaction involving two or more body systems

anaphylaxis

50

the group of medications that prevent endogenous of exogenous agonist chemicals from reaching cell receptor sites and initiating or altering a particular cellular activity

antagonist medications

51

the medications used to fight infection by killing the microorganisms or preventing their multiplication to allow the body's immune system to overcome them

antibiotics

52

the medications used to treat fungal infections

antifungals

53

the medications used to kill or suppress the growth of microorganisms

anitmicrobials

54

a state in which cardiac cells are at rest, waiting for the generation of a spontaneous impulse from within

automaticity

55

the percentage of the unchanged medication that reaches systemic circulation

bioavailability

56

a process with possible side effects: I) inactive substance becomes active II) active medication can be changed into another active medication III) an active medication may be completely or partially inactivated IV) a mediation is transformed into a substance easier for the body to eliminate

biotransformation

57

medications that bind with heavy metals in the body and create a compound that can be eliminated; used in cases of ingestion or poisoning

chelating agents

58

a term used to describe the fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system that release a chemical called aceythlcholine

cholinergic

59

the medications that temporarily bind with cellular receptor sites; displacing agonist chemical

competitive antagonists

60

a term used to describe paralytic agents that act at the neuromuscular junction by binding with nicotinic receptors on muscles, causing fasciculations and preventing additional activation by acetylcholine

competitive depolarizing

61

a process in which repeated exposure to a medication within a particular class causes a tolerance that may be transferred to other medications in the same class

cross tolerance

62

several smaller doses of a particular medication capable of producing the same clinical effects as a single larger dose of that same medication

cumulative action

63

a hemoprotein involved in the detoxification of many drugs

cytochrome P-450 system

64

the physical, behavioral, or emotional need for a medication or chemical in order to maintain normal physiologic function

dependence

65

the process of discharging resting cardiac muscle fibers by an electric impulse that causes them to contract

depolarization

66

a chemical or medication that decreases the performance of the CNS or sympathetic nervous system

depressant

67

the movement and transportation of a medication throughout the bloodstream to tissues and cells and, to its target receptor

distributor

68

a chemical that increases urinary output

diuretic

69

a graphic illustration of the response of a drug according to the dose administered

dose-response curve

70

the specified amount of a medication to be given at specific intervals

dosing

71

the process in which a mechanism reducing available cell receptors for a particular medication results in tolerance

down regulation

72

the time a medication concentration can be expected to remain above the minimum level needed to provide the intended action

duration of effect

73

pertaining to voluntary muscle movements that are distorted or impaired because of abnormal muscle tone

dystonic

74

sites of generation of electrical impulses other than normal pacemaker cells

ectopic foci

75

the ability of a medication to produce the desired effect

efficacy

76

the removal of a medication or its by products from the body

elimination

77

originating from within the organism

endogenous

78

originating outside the body

exogenous

79

sepage of blood and medication into the tissue surrounding the blood vessel

extravasation

80

the process of medication molecules binding with carrier proteins when no energy is expended

facilitated diffusion

81

brief, uncoordinated, visible twitching of small muscle groups; may be caused by the administration of a depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent

fasciculation

82

use of hydrostatic pressure to force water or dissolved particles through a semipermeable membrane

filtration

83

the process in which the rate of elimination is directly influenced by plasma levels of a substance

first order elimination

84

the unusual tolerance to the therapeutic and adverse clinical effects of a medication or chemical

habituation

85

the time needed in an average person for metabolism or elimination of 50% of a substance in the plasma

half-life

86

the percentage of RBC in a blood sample

hematocrit

87

the destruction of RBC by the disruption of the cell membrane

hemolysis

88

attracted to water molecules

hydrophilic

89

abnormal susceptibility to a medication peculiar to an individual patient

idiosyncratic

90

a medication that has undergone biotransformation and now is no longer able to able to alter a cell process or body function

inactive metabolite

91

charged particles

ions

92

one medication or chemical taken by a patient that undermines the effectiveness of another medication taken by or administered to a patient

interference

93

attracted to fats and lipids

lipophilic

94

the weight-based dose of a medication that caused the death in 50% of the humans and animals tested

median effective dose

95

the weight based dose of a medication that demonstrated toxicity in 50% of the animals tested

median toxic dose

96

a document that gives detailed information about drugs, such as indications and uses, dosing information, precautions, contraindications, and adverse effects

medication monograph

97

a mild to severe reaction after the first exposure to a medication or other substance, with many of the same signs and symptoms as an immune mediated reaction

medication sensitivity

98

medications that permanently bind with receptor sites and prevent activation by agonist chemicals

noncompetitive antagonists

99

describes drugs that produce muscle relaxation by interfering with impulses between the nerve ending and muscle receptor

nondepolarizing

100

uncharged

nonionic

101

the time needed for the concentration of the medication at the target tissue to reach the minimum effective level

onset

102

the movement of a fluid from a low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration

osmosis

103

characterized by the movement of a solvent from an area of lower to higher concentration of solute molecules

osmotic

104

opposite from what is expected

paradoxical

105

a chemical that binds to the receptor site but does not initiate as much cellular activity or change as other agonists do

partial agonist

106

the point of maximum effect of a drug

peak

107

the biochemical and physiologic effects and mechanism of action of a medication in the body

pharmacodynamics

108

the fate of medications in the body, such as distribution and elimination

pharmacokinetics

109

the scientific study of how various substances interact with or alter the function of living organisms

pharmacology

110

a process by which cells ingest the extracellular fluid and its contents

pinocytosis

111

the positive and negative effects of an inactive medication on a person that are related to the person's expectations and other factors

placebo effect

112

a process in which medication molecules attach to proteins in the blood plasma, altering medication distribution in the body

plasma protein binding

113

the relationship between the desired response of a medication and the dose required to achieve the response

potency

114

a specialized area in tissues that initiates certain actions after specific stimulation

receptor

115

the period in the cell firing cycle at which it is possible but difficult to restimulate the cell to fire another impulse

relative refractory period

116

a severe, fatal reaction that mimics a burn; due to a medication

stevens-johnson syndrome

117

a medication or chemical that temporarily enhances CNS and sympathetic nervous system functioning

stimulant

118

medications administered to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system

sympathomimetics

119

a condition in which repeated doses of medication within a short period rapidly cause tolerance, making the medication virtually ineffective

tachyphylaxis

120

the relationship between the median effective dose and the median lethal dose or median toxic dose; known as the therapeutic ratio

therapeutic index

121

the concentration of medication at which initiation or alteration of cellular activity begins

threshold level

122

a condition that develops following repeated use by a patient of a medication that results in decreased efficacy or potency

tolerance

123

a clinical change caused by a medication that causes harm or discomfort to a patient; known as a adverse effect

untoward effect

124

a classification scheme based on the MOA rather than on specific medication groups

Vaughan-Williams

125

the extent to which a medication will spread within a body

volume of distribution

126

a property that indicates a material can be dissolved in water

water-soluble

127

a process in which a fixed amount of a substance is removed during a certain period, regardless of the amount in the body

zero-order elimination

128

abnormal or harmful effects to an organism caused by exposur