CH. 11 MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION Flashcards Preview

EMT-P (PAR 212-PHARMACOLOGY) > CH. 11 MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH. 11 MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION Deck (148):
1

Route of Administration:
Intraosseous

Onset of Action?

30-60 s

2

Route of Administration:
Intravenous

Onset of Action?

30-60 s

3

Route of Administration:
Endotracheal

Onset of Action?

2-3 min

4

Route of Administration:
Inhalation

Onset of Action?

2-3 min

5

Route of Administration:
MAD

Onset of Action?

3-5 min

6

Route of Administration:
Sublingual

Onset of Action?

3-5 min

7

Route of Administration:
IM

Onset of Action?

10-20 min

8

Route of Administration:
SC

Onset of Action?

15-30 min

9

Route of Administration:
Rectal

Onset of Action?

5-30 min

10

Route of Administration:
Oral

Onset of Action?

30-90 min

11

Route of Administration:
Topical

Onset of Action?

minutes to hours

12

a pathologic condition resulting from the accumulation of bases in the body

alkalosis

13

small glass containers that are sealed and the contents sterilized

ampules

14

an ion that contains an overall negative charge

anion

15

the anterior aspect of the elbow

antecubital

16

a substance that prevents blood from clotting

anticoagulant

17

a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that signals the kidneys to prevent excretion of water

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

18

chemicals used to cleanse an area before performing an invasive procedure, such as starting an IV line; not toxic to living tissues; examples include isopropyl alcohol and iodine

antiseptics

19

a method of cleansing used to prevent contamination of a site when you are performing an invasive procedure such as starting an IV line

aseptic technique

20

a staggered walk or gait

ataxia

21

pertaining to the ear

aural

22

an ion that contains two charges

bivalent

23

a special type of macro drip administration set designed to facilitate rapid fluid replacement by manual infusion of multiple IV bags or IV blood replacement combinations

blood tubing

24

a term used to describe in one mass; in medication administration, a single dose given by the IV or IO route; may be a small or large quantity of the drug

bolus

25

a spring loaded device used for inserting an IO needle into the proximal tibia and pediatric patients

Bone Injection Gun (BIG)

26

between the cheek and gums

buccal

27

a rigid, hollow, venous cannulation device identified by its plastic "wings" that act as anchoring points for securing the catheter

butterfly catheter

28

the insertion of the catheter, such as into a vein to allow for fluid flow

cannulation

29

hand or foot spasm; usually the result of hyperventilation or hypocalcemia

carpopedal spasms

30

occurs when a needle is reinserted into the catheter, and it slices through the catheter, creating a free-floating segment

catheter shear

31

an ion that contains an overall positive charge

cation

32

a scale used for measuring temperature where water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees

Celcius scale

33

solutions that contain molecules that are too large to pass out of the capillary membranes and remain in the vascular compartment

colloid solutions

34

the total weight of a drug contained in a specific volume of liquid

concentration

35

the natural tendency for substances to flow from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration within or outside the side

concentration gradient

36

the puncturing of an emergency care provider's skin with a needle or catheter that was used on a patient

contaminated stick

37

solutions of dissolved crystals in water; contain compounds that quickly dissociate in solution

crystalloid solutions

38

an intravenous solution made up of 5% dextrose in water

D5W

39

depletion of the body's systemic fluid volume

dehydration

40

the rapid movement of electrolytes across a cell membrane that changes the cell's overall charge. This rapid shifting of electrolytes and cellular charges is the main catalyst for muscle contractions and neural transmissions

depolarization

41

the amount of a drug that the physician orders for a patient; the drug order

desired dose

42

the shaft of the long bone

diaphysis

43

a process where molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

diffusion

44

a solution used for diluting a medication

diluent

45

chemicals used on nonliving objects to kill organisms; toxic to living tissue

disinfectants

46

the area of administration set where fluids accumulates so that the tubing remains filled with fluid

drip chamber

47

injecting sterile water or saline from one vial into another vial containing a powdered form of the drug

drug reconstitution

48

charged atoms or compounds that result from the loss or gain of an electron. These are ions that the body uses to perform certain critical metabolic functions

electrolytes

49

medication administration that involves the medication passing through a portion of the GI tract

enteral medications

50

the growth plate of the bone; a major site of bone development during childhood

epiphyseal plate

51

the ends of a long bone

epiphyses

52

large neck vein that is lateral to the carotid artery

external jugular (EJ) vein

53

a hand-held, battery-powered driver to which a special IO needle is attached; used for insertion of the IO needle into the proximal tibia of children and adults

EZ-IO

54

a scale for measuring temperature where water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees

Fahrenheit scale

55

the fiberlike connective tissue that covers arteries, veins, tendons, and ligaments

fascia

56

a sternal IO device used in adults; stands for First Access for Shock and Trauma

FASTI

57

the area of an IV catheter that fills with blood to help indicate when a vein is cannulated

flash chamber

58

tubes that are commonly inserted into patients in the prehospital setting to decompress the stomach; can also be used to administer certain enteral medications

gastric tubes

59

the internal diameter of an IV catheter or needle

gauge

60

a unit of measure that indicates drops

gtt

61

an accumulation of blood in the tissues beneath the skin; a potential complication of IV therapy

hematoma

62

the body's natural clotting mechanism

hemostasis

63

the balance of all body systems of the body; known as homeostatic balance

homeostasis

64

a high serum calcium level

hypercalcemia

65

a high serum potassium level

hyperkalemia

66

a solution that has greater concentration of sodium than does the cell; the increased osmotic pressure can draw water out of the cell and cause it to collapse

hypertonic solution

67

devices that are implanted in surgery, sutured under the skin, for the purpose of long-term medication administration, total parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy, blood product administration, and venous blood sampling; an arteriovenous fistula is an example

implanted vascular access device (VAD)

68

the escape of fluid into the surrounding tissue; the result of vein perforation during IV cannulation

infiltration

69

breathing into the lungs; a medication delivery route

inhalation

70

the water bathing the cells; accounts for about 10.5 % of body weight; includes special fluid collections such as CSF and intraocular fluid

interstitial fluid

71

the water contained inside the cells; accounts for 45% of the body weight

intracellular fluid

72

the layer of the dermis, beneath the epidermis; a medication delivery route

intradermal

73

into a muscle

intramuscular

74

within the nose

intranasal

75

within the bone

intraosseous

76

a technique of administering fluids, blood and blood products, and medications into the intraosseous space of the long bone, usually the proximal tibia

intraosseous (IO) infusion

77

the spongy cancellous bone of the epiphyses and the medullary cavity of the diaphysis, collectively

intraosseous (IO) space

78

plasma; the water within the blood vessels, which carries the RBC, WBC, and vital nutrients; counts for 4.5% of body weight

intravascular fluid

79

within a vein

intravenous

80

cannulation of a vein with an IV catheter to access the patient's vascular system

intravenous (IV) therapy

81

the amount of charged particles found in a particular area

ionic concentration

82

charged atoms or compounds that result from the loss or gain of an electron

ions

83

intravenous solutions that do not cause a fluid shift into or out of the cell; include normal saline and lactated Ringer's solutions

isotonic crystalloids

84

a solution that has the same concentration of sodium as does the cell. Water does not shift and no change in cell shape occurs

isotonic solution

85

a sterile isotonic crystalloid IV solution of specified amounts of calcium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, and sodium lactate in water

lactated Ringer's (I.R.) solution

86

reactions that occur in a localized area; a potential complication of IV therapy

local reactions

87

administration sets named for the large orifice between the piercing spike and the drip chamber; allow for rapid fluid flow into the vascular system; allow 10 or 15 gtt/mL, depending on the manufacturer

macro drip sets

88

a term applied to the practice of preventing contamination of the patient by using aseptic technique

medical asepsis

89

pertaining to the breakdown of ingested foodstuffs into smaller and smaller molecules and atoms that are used as energy sources for cellular function

metabolic

90

a pressurized canister that delivers a specific dose of medication

MDI

91

a decimal system based on tens for the measurement of length, weight, and volume

metric system

92

administration sets named for the small needle like orifice between the piercing spike and the drip chamber; allow for carefully controlled fluid flow and are ideally suited for medication administration; allow for 60 gtt/mL

micro drip sets

93

unit of measure for electrolytes

milliequivalents (mEq)

94

a single vial divided into two compartments by a rubber stopper such as Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Solu-Medrol)

Mix-o-Vial

95

an ion that contains one charge

monovalent

96

a device that attaches to the end of a syringe that is used to spray certain medications via the intranasal route

MAD

97

a device for producing a fine spray mist or mist that is used to deliver inhaled medications

nebulizer

98

devices that have been inserted by direct venipuncture through the skin directly into a selected vein, for the purpose of long term administration, total parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy, and venous blood sampling; peripheral inserted central catheters and central venous catheters are examples

non-tunneling devices

99

solutes that have no electrical charge; include glucose and urea; measured in milligrams (mg)

nonelectrolytes

100

a solution of 0.9% sodium chloride; an isotonic crystalloid

normal saline

101

blockage, usually of a tubular structure such as a blood vessel or IV catheter

occlusion

102

pertaining to the eye

ocular

103

type of medical control where the paramedic is in direct contact with a physician, usually via a two way radio or telephone

online medical control

104

the ability to influence the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane

osmolarity

105

the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower to higher concentration of solute molecules

osmosis

106

a congenital bone disease that results in fragile bone

osteogenesis imperfecta

107

inflammation of the bone and muscle caused by infection

osteomyelitis

108

an increase in the body's systemic fluid volume

overhydration

109

a teflon (plastic) catheter inserted over a hollow needle

over the needle catheter

110

a route of medication administration that involves any route other than the GI tract

parenteral route

111

a type of surgical drain often used as a constricting band

Penrose drain

112

thought the skin or mucous membrane

percutaneous

113

cannulating veins of the periphery, that is, those that can be seen and/or palpated.

peripheral vein cannulation

114

the cell membrane's double layer

phospholipid bilayer

115

a hard plastic spike designed to pierce the sterile membrane of the IV bag

piercing spike

116

symptomatic drop in blood pressure related to the patient's body position

postural hypotension

117

medication syringes that are prepackaged and prepared with a specific concentration

prefilled syringes

118

a sleeve that is placed around the IV bag and inflated to force fluid to flow from the IV bag and into the tubing

pressure infuser device

119

a blood clot or foreign matter trapped within the pulmonary circulation

pulmonary embolism

120

a reaction characterized by an abrupt temperature elevation (as high as 106 degrees) with severe chills, backache, headache, weakness, nausea, and vomiting; a potential complication of IV or IO therapy

pyrogenic reaction

121

feature of an IV catheter that allows it to appear on a radiograph

radiopaque

122

special types of IV devices that eliminate the need to hang a bag of IV fluid; also called a buff cap or INT (intermittent); commonly used for patients who do not require fluid boluses but may require medication therapy

saline locks

123

the ability of the cell membrane to selectively allow compounds into the cell based on cell's current needs

selective permeability

124

glass tubes with self-sealing rubber caps; used to obtain blood samples

self-sealing blood tubes

125

any contaminated item that can cause injury

sharps

126

the mechanism by which the cell brings in two potassium ions and releases three sodium ions

sodium potassium pump

127

the dissolved particles contained in the solvent

solute

128

combination of dissolved elements and water

solution

129

the fluid that does the dissolving or the solution that contains the dissolved components

solvent

130

a form of off-line or indirect medical control, where the paramedic performs certain predefined procedures before contacting the physician

standing orders

131

the destruction of all living organisms; achieved by using heat, gas, or chemical

sterile

132

into the tissue between the skin and muscle; a medication delivery route

subcutaneous

133

under the tongue

sublingual

134

fainting

syncope

135

reactions that affect systems of the body

systemic complications

136

the shifting of fluid into the tissues, creating edema

third spacing

137

inflammation of a vein

thrombophlebitis

138

plastic catheters inserted through a hollow needle; referred to as intracaths

through the needle catheters

139

the osmotic pressure of a solution, based on the relationship between sodium and water inside and outside the cell, that takes advantage of their chemical and osmotic properties to move water to areas of higher concentration

tonicity

140

total amount of water in the human body; accounts for approx 60% of the weight of an average man; divided into various components

total body water (TBW)

141

the visible scars from repeated cannulation of a vein; commonly associated with illicit drug use

track marks

142

across the skin

transdermal

143

a cylindrical device that attaches to an 18-or 20-guage sampling needle; accommodates self sealing blood tubes when blood samples are being obtained

vacutainer

144

veins on the leg that are large, twisted, and ropelike and can cause pain, swelling, or itching

varicose veins

145

the development of a stationary blood clot in the venous circulation

venous thrombosis

146

small glass or plastic bottles that contain medication; may contain single or multiple doses

vials

147

the amount of fluid you have on hand such as the amount of fluid in the IV bag or the amount of fluid in a vial or medication

volume on hand

148

a special type of micro drip set that features a 100 or 200 mL calibrated drip chamber; used for fluid regulation in patients prone to circulatory overload, such as pediatric and elderly patients; also called a Buretrol

Volutrol