Ch 10 (Stocks and Sauces) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 10 (Stocks and Sauces) Deck (49)
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1

stock

flavored liquid

2

fond

base. French term for stocks.

3

sauce

thickened liquid used to flavor and enhance other foods.

4

white stock

made by simmering chicken, veal, or beef bones in water with vegetables and seasonings. Remains relatively colorless during the cooking process.

5

brown stock

made from chicken, veal, beef, or game bones and veggies. They are caramelized and seasoned before being added to the water. Has a rich, dark color.

6

fish stock & fumet

slowly cooked fish bones or crustacean shells and veggies. Simmered in water with seasoning for short time. Relatively colorless.

7

court bouillon

simmering veggies and seasonings in water and an acidic liquid such as vinegar or wine. Used to poach fish or veggies.

8

What is the quality of stock judged by?

body, flavor, clarity, and color.

9

What are the basic ingredients of a stock?

Bones, mirepoix, seasonings, water

10

What do bones contribute to a stock?

flavor, richness. and color.

11

cartilage

gristle; a tough, elastic, whitish connective tissue that helps give structure to an animal's body.

12

connective tissue

tissue found throughout an animals body that binds together and supports other tissues such as muscles.

13

collagen

a protein found in nearly all connective tissue; it dissolves when cooked with moisture

14

gelatin

a tasteless and odorless mixture of proteins (especially collagen) exacted from boiling bones, connective tissue and other animal parts; when dissolved in a hot liquid and then cooled, it forms a jellylike substance used as a thickener and stabilizer.

15

mirepoix

mixture of onions, carrots, and celery at ratio 2:1:1. Used to enhance stock flavor and aroma.

16

white mirepoix

replaces carrots with parsnips, mushrooms, and leeks.

17

What are the principle stock seasonings?

peppercorns, bay leaves, thyme, parsley stems, and optionally garlic. Left whole.

18

Why don't you use salt in stock?

1. it is impossible for chef to know how much to use since stock has wide variety of purposes.
2. salt is not lost with reduction.
3. Cannot add salty foods to stock when finished.

19

Principles of making stock

1. Start the stock in cold water
2. Simmer the stock gently
3. Skim the stock frequently
4. Strain the stock carefully
5. Cool the stock quickly
6. Store the stock properly
7. Degrease the stock.

20

degrease

to remove fat from the surface of a liquid such as a stock by skimming, scraping or lifting congealed fat.

21

What is the main difference between a white stock and a brown stock?

Brown stock bones and mirepoix are caramelized before being simmered, everything is cut smaller than in a white stock and a tomato product is added.

22

deglaze

to swirl or stir a liquid (usually wine or stock) in a saute pan or other pan to dissolve cooked food particles remaining on the bottom; the resulting mixture often becomes the base for a sauce.

23

sweat

to cook a food in a pan without browning, over low hear until the item softens and releases moisture; sweating allows the food to release its flavor more quickly when cooked with other foods.

24

nage

an aromatic court bouillon that is sometimes served as a light sauce or broth with fish or shellfish.

25

glaze

the dramatic reduction and concentration of a stock. Added to soups and sauces to increase and intensify flavors.

26

sauce

a liquid with a thickening agent and seasonings.

27

3 types of roux

white, blond, and brown

28

corn starch

a pure starch derived from corn

29

slurry

a mixture of raw starch and cold liquid used for thickening.

30

Thickening agents

cornstarch, roux, arrowroot, beurre manie, liaison, emulsification.