Ch 7 (dairy) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 7 (dairy) Deck (26)
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1

whole milk

88% water, 3.5% milkfat, 8.5% other milk solids

2

Pasteurization significantly affects nutritional value of milk.

False

3

TCS

time and temperature control for safety

4

pasteurization

the process of heating milk to a sufficiently high temperature (161F) for a short amount of time (15 sec) to destroy pathogenic bacteria.

5

ultra-pasteurization

the process of heating milk to very high temperatures (275F) for a very short time (2- 4 sec) to destroy virtually all bacteria.

6

Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processing

held at 280-300F for 2-6 seconds and then packaged n sterile containers under sterile conditions.

7

Homogenization

fat globules in whole milk reduced in size and permanently dispersed throughout the liquid.

8

Why is most milk homogenized even though it's not required?

Whiter, uniform appearance, and richer taste.

9

Reduced-fat milk

2% milkfat. Also known as 2% milk or less-fat milk.

10

Low-fat milk

1% milkfat. Also known as little-fat milk.

11

Nonfat milk

0.5% milkfat. Also known as fat-free, no-fat, or skim milk

12

Sweetened condensed milk can be substituted for whole milk.

False

13

Heavy cream is pasteurized and homogenized.

False

14

Cultured dairy products include

yogurt, sour cream, & buttermilk.

15

butter

a fatty substance produced by agitating or churning cream. At least 80% milkfat, 16% water, and 2-4% milk solids.

16

lactose

a disaccharide that occurs naturally in mammalian milk; milk sugar

17

whole butter

butter that is not clarified, whipped, or reduced-fat

18

rancidity

the decomposition of fats by exposure of oxygen, resulting in off-flavors and destruction of nutritive components.

19

margarine

not a dairy product. made from animal or vegetable fats or a combination of such fats.

20

green cheese

cheese processed by cutting, kneading, and cooking.

21

fresh or unripened cheese

uncooked and unripened cheese. Highly perishable. Include mozzarella, mascarpone, and feta.

22

soft cheeses

characterized by thin skins and creamy centers. Ripen quickly and are at peak for only a few days, sometimes less. Moisture content 50-75%. Include brie, taleggio, and boursin.

23

semisoft cheeses

mild & buttery with smooth, sliceable textures. AKA monastery or Trappist cheese. Includes gorgonzola, gouda, and stilton.

24

firm cheeses

not hard or brittle. some are close-textured and flaky. some are dense and holey. Include cheddar, american cheddar, and colby.

25

hard cheeses

carefully aged for extended periods and have moisture content of about 30%. Include asiago, pecorino romano, and parmigiano-reggiano (parmesan). Good for grating.

26

goat's-milk cheeses

sharp, tangy flavor. Range in texture from very soft to very hard, depending on age. Include Chevre.