Chapter 22 (Potatoes, grains, and pasta) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 (Potatoes, grains, and pasta) Deck (32)
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1

new potatoes

small, immature potatoes of any variety that are harvested before their starches develop. They are waxy with a high moisture content and a thin, delicate skin.

2

Fingerlings

Typically heirloom varieties, related to the original potato varieties from the Andes. Generally small, long, and oblong with good flavor. Tend to be low in starch are are good for roasting in potato salads.

3

Purple potatoes

purple or blue potatoes that become lighter when cooked. They are mealy with a flavor and texture similar to russets.

4

Red potatoes

have thin, red skin and crisp, white, waxy flesh. Not good for baking. Best for boiling or steaming. Round, not oblong.

5

Russet (burbank) potatoes

aka Idaho potatoes; the standard baking potato. They are long with rough, reddish-brown skin and mealy flesh. They are good for baking and frying but not boiling because they fall apart.

6

White potatoes

aka chef or all-purpose potatoes. have a thin, tender skin with a tender, waxy yellow or white flesh. Yukon Gold is a popular variety of white potato.

7

sweet potatoes

botanically different than potatoes but are still tubers. Both types have thick skin ranging in color from light tan to brownish red.

8

yams

botanically different from both potatoes and sweet potatoes.

9

nutrition

potatoes contain high levels of easily digested complex carbohydrates and little or no fat. A good source of vitamin B6, C, and potassium.

10

mealy potatoes (starchy potatoes)

high starch content and thick skin. Low sugar content makes them suitable for deep-drying. Good for baking. Tend to fall apart when boiled.

11

waxy potatoes

low starch content and thin skin. Best for boiling. Not good for baking or deep-frying.

12

grading

U.S. No. 1 potato=top grade (perfect appearance)
U.S. No. 2 potato= good for peeling and cutting.

13

purchasing

Potatoes come in 80, 90, 100-count cartons of 50Ibs. The higher the count, the smaller the potato. The smaller the count, the bigger the potato and more expensive. The size does not affect quality. But size should be chosen based on intended use.

14

storing

Should be stored between 50 and 65 degrees F. Should be stored in a dark room. Should last for 2 months; new potatoes should last for about 2 weeks.

15

Washing potatoes

Don't wash potatoes until they are ready to be used because washing them promotes spoilage. Peeled potatoes should be stored in water and refrigerated to prevent enzymatic browning.

16

Determining doneness

potatoes are considered done when they are soft and tender or offer little resistance when pierced with a knife tip.

17

What not to do with baked potatoes.

Baked potatoes should not be microwaved or wrapped in foil because then they're actually steamed potatoes, which prevents a crisp skin from forming. Surprise!

18

Solanine

a toxin harmful if eaten in large amounts that should be peeled away. Found on the eyes, sprouts, and on the potato itself.

19

grains

botanically are grasses that bear edible seeds. Corn, rice, and wheat are the most significant.

20

Types of corns

hominy, cornmeal, and grits

21

Kinds of rice

long-grain, medium-grain, short-grain, white rice, brown rice, converted rice, and instant or quick-cooking rice.

22

Types of rice

Arborio, Basmati, Brown, Sticky, Wild, and Wild Pecan Rice

23

Rice

the starchy seed of a semiaquatic grass.

24

Types of wheat

Cracked, Bulgur, and Couscous.

25

Other grains

Barley, buckwheat/kasha, millet, oats, & quinoa.

26

Purchasing grains

Look for fresh, plump grains with a bright, even color. They should not be shriveled or crumbly. No sour or musty odors.

27

Storing grains

Should be stored in an airtight container in a dark, cool, dry place. Vacuum-sealed packages can last for extended periods of time.

28

Determining doneness

Should be cooked until tender. Usually determined by cooking time and the amount of liquid remaining in the pan.

29

Risotto Method

a classic northern Italian dish in which grains remain firm but merge with the cooking liquid to become a creamy dish. Grains are coated in a hot fat. A hot liquid is then gradually added to the mixture so that the mixture is kept at a constant simmer. Requires frequent, sometimes constant, stirring.

30

Pasta

made from an unleavened dough of wheat flour mixed with a liquid, usually water and/or egg. Can come from almost any grain.