Flashcards in Chapter 22 (Potatoes, grains, and pasta) Deck (32)
small, immature potatoes of any variety that are harvested before their starches develop. They are waxy with a high moisture content and a thin, delicate skin.
Typically heirloom varieties, related to the original potato varieties from the Andes. Generally small, long, and oblong with good flavor. Tend to be low in starch are are good for roasting in potato salads.
purple or blue potatoes that become lighter when cooked. They are mealy with a flavor and texture similar to russets.
have thin, red skin and crisp, white, waxy flesh. Not good for baking. Best for boiling or steaming. Round, not oblong.
Russet (burbank) potatoes
aka Idaho potatoes; the standard baking potato. They are long with rough, reddish-brown skin and mealy flesh. They are good for baking and frying but not boiling because they fall apart.
aka chef or all-purpose potatoes. have a thin, tender skin with a tender, waxy yellow or white flesh. Yukon Gold is a popular variety of white potato.
botanically different than potatoes but are still tubers. Both types have thick skin ranging in color from light tan to brownish red.
botanically different from both potatoes and sweet potatoes.
potatoes contain high levels of easily digested complex carbohydrates and little or no fat. A good source of vitamin B6, C, and potassium.
mealy potatoes (starchy potatoes)
high starch content and thick skin. Low sugar content makes them suitable for deep-drying. Good for baking. Tend to fall apart when boiled.
low starch content and thin skin. Best for boiling. Not good for baking or deep-frying.
U.S. No. 1 potato=top grade (perfect appearance)
U.S. No. 2 potato= good for peeling and cutting.
Potatoes come in 80, 90, 100-count cartons of 50Ibs. The higher the count, the smaller the potato. The smaller the count, the bigger the potato and more expensive. The size does not affect quality. But size should be chosen based on intended use.
Should be stored between 50 and 65 degrees F. Should be stored in a dark room. Should last for 2 months; new potatoes should last for about 2 weeks.
Don't wash potatoes until they are ready to be used because washing them promotes spoilage. Peeled potatoes should be stored in water and refrigerated to prevent enzymatic browning.
potatoes are considered done when they are soft and tender or offer little resistance when pierced with a knife tip.
What not to do with baked potatoes.
Baked potatoes should not be microwaved or wrapped in foil because then they're actually steamed potatoes, which prevents a crisp skin from forming. Surprise!
a toxin harmful if eaten in large amounts that should be peeled away. Found on the eyes, sprouts, and on the potato itself.
botanically are grasses that bear edible seeds. Corn, rice, and wheat are the most significant.
Types of corns
hominy, cornmeal, and grits
Kinds of rice
long-grain, medium-grain, short-grain, white rice, brown rice, converted rice, and instant or quick-cooking rice.
Types of rice
Arborio, Basmati, Brown, Sticky, Wild, and Wild Pecan Rice
the starchy seed of a semiaquatic grass.
Types of wheat
Cracked, Bulgur, and Couscous.
Barley, buckwheat/kasha, millet, oats, & quinoa.
Look for fresh, plump grains with a bright, even color. They should not be shriveled or crumbly. No sour or musty odors.
Should be stored in an airtight container in a dark, cool, dry place. Vacuum-sealed packages can last for extended periods of time.
Should be cooked until tender. Usually determined by cooking time and the amount of liquid remaining in the pan.
a classic northern Italian dish in which grains remain firm but merge with the cooking liquid to become a creamy dish. Grains are coated in a hot fat. A hot liquid is then gradually added to the mixture so that the mixture is kept at a constant simmer. Requires frequent, sometimes constant, stirring.