Flashcards in Chapter 9- Deck (36)
the transfer of energy from a heat source to a food
a type of energy
the absence of heat
the movement of heat from one item to another through direct contact; relatively slow because there must be physical contact.
transfer of heat through a fluid, which may be liquid or gas. 2 types are natural and mechanical convection.
energy transferred by waves of heat or light striking the food. 2 types are infrared and microwave cooking.
Foods are composed of...
proteins, carbohydrates, water, fat, and a small amount of vitamins and minerals.
the irreversible transformation of proteins from a liquid or semi-liquid state to a solid state. Most proteins coagulate between 160 & 185.
the process by which starch granules are cooked; they absorb moisture when placed in a liquid and heated; as the moisture is absorbed, the product swells, softens and clarifies slightly.
the process of cooking sugars; the browning of sugar enhances the flavor and appearance of foods.
the process whereby sugars break down in the presence of protein.
responsible for drying out of foods during cooking
uses water or steam; used to tenderize and emphasize natural flavors of food.
uses air or fat; give rich flavor
Braising and stewing
the 2 most significant combination cooking methods
uses radiant heat from an overhead source to cook foods.
similar to broiling but uses heat source from beneath cooking surface.
roasting and baking
the process of surrounding food with dry, heated air in a closed environment.
uses conduction to transfer heat from a hot pan to food with the aid of a small amount of fat.
a variation of sauteing; uses a wok
a dry-heat cooking method in which heat is transferred by conduction from the pan to the food, using a moderate amount of fat. Also uses convection.
uses conduction and convection to transfer heat to food submerged in hot fat. Dry-heat method. Basket (and double basket) and swimming method.
Why are deep-fried foods breaded?
to prevent food from absorbing excessive amounts of fat.
the length of time it takes a cooking medium such as fat or water to return to the desired cooking temperature after food is submerged in it.
a chemical process that adds hydrogen to oil, turning the liquid oil into a solid.
what should you consider when choosing a fat to fry with?
smoke point, flavor, and resistance to chemical breakdown.
moist-heat method that uses convection to transfer heat from a liquid to a food. Placed in liquid between 160 & 180 degrees. 2 methods are submersion and shallow poaching.
the liquid used for shallow poaching
moist-heat method that uses convection to transfer heat from a liquid to food. Food submerged in liquid between 185 & 205 degrees.