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Flashcards in Chapter 9- Deck (36)
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1

cooking

the transfer of energy from a heat source to a food

2

heat

a type of energy

3

cold

the absence of heat

4

conduction

the movement of heat from one item to another through direct contact; relatively slow because there must be physical contact.

5

convection

transfer of heat through a fluid, which may be liquid or gas. 2 types are natural and mechanical convection.

6

radiation

energy transferred by waves of heat or light striking the food. 2 types are infrared and microwave cooking.

7

Foods are composed of...

proteins, carbohydrates, water, fat, and a small amount of vitamins and minerals.

8

coagulation

the irreversible transformation of proteins from a liquid or semi-liquid state to a solid state. Most proteins coagulate between 160 & 185.

9

gelatinization

the process by which starch granules are cooked; they absorb moisture when placed in a liquid and heated; as the moisture is absorbed, the product swells, softens and clarifies slightly.

10

carmelization

the process of cooking sugars; the browning of sugar enhances the flavor and appearance of foods.

11

Maillard Reaction

the process whereby sugars break down in the presence of protein.

12

evaporation

responsible for drying out of foods during cooking

13

Moist-heat cooking

uses water or steam; used to tenderize and emphasize natural flavors of food.

14

dry-heat cooking

uses air or fat; give rich flavor

15

Braising and stewing

the 2 most significant combination cooking methods

16

broiling

uses radiant heat from an overhead source to cook foods.

17

grilling

similar to broiling but uses heat source from beneath cooking surface.

18

roasting and baking

the process of surrounding food with dry, heated air in a closed environment.

19

sauteing

uses conduction to transfer heat from a hot pan to food with the aid of a small amount of fat.

20

stir-frying

a variation of sauteing; uses a wok

21

pan-frying

a dry-heat cooking method in which heat is transferred by conduction from the pan to the food, using a moderate amount of fat. Also uses convection.

22

deep-frying

uses conduction and convection to transfer heat to food submerged in hot fat. Dry-heat method. Basket (and double basket) and swimming method.

23

Why are deep-fried foods breaded?

to prevent food from absorbing excessive amounts of fat.

24

recovery time

the length of time it takes a cooking medium such as fat or water to return to the desired cooking temperature after food is submerged in it.

25

hydrogenation

a chemical process that adds hydrogen to oil, turning the liquid oil into a solid.

26

what should you consider when choosing a fat to fry with?

smoke point, flavor, and resistance to chemical breakdown.

27

poaching

moist-heat method that uses convection to transfer heat from a liquid to a food. Placed in liquid between 160 & 180 degrees. 2 methods are submersion and shallow poaching.

28

cuisson

the liquid used for shallow poaching

29

simmering

moist-heat method that uses convection to transfer heat from a liquid to food. Food submerged in liquid between 185 & 205 degrees.

30

boiling

Turbulent waters and the relatively high temperatures cook foods more quickly than poaching or simmering. Boiling point 212 degrees.