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Flashcards in ch 16 Deck (77):
1

the intro of materials into the digestive tract by the mouth

ingestion

2

the chemical breakdown of ingested materials into simple molecules that can be absorbed by the cells of the digestive tract

digestion

3

the active or passive uptake of gases, fluids, nutrients, or solutes

absorption

4

elimination from the body

excretion

5

a mucous membrane; the epithelium and the lamina propria

mucosa

6

layer of smooth muscle beneath the lamina propria; responsible for moving the mucosal surface

muscularis mucosae

7

region between the muscularis mucosae and the muscularis externa

submucosa

8

concentric layer of smooth muscle responsible for peristalsis

muscularis externa

9

parasympathetic motor neurons and sympathetic post ganglionic fibers located between the circular an ongitudinal layers of the musularis externa

myentric plexus

10

a double layer of serous membrane that supports and stabilizes the position of an organ in the abdominopelvic cavity and provides a route for the associated blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics

mesentery

11

superficial layer of connective tissue surrounding an internal organ; fibers are continuous with those of surrounding tissues, providing support and stabilization

adventitia

12

a wave of smooth muscle contractions that propels materials along the axis of a tube such as the digestive tract, ureters, or the ductus deferens

peristalsis

13

pertaining to the cheeks

buccal

14

lip, majora and minora are componenets of the female external genitalia

labium/labia

15

the bony roof of the oral cavity, formed by the maxillary and palatine bones

hard palate

16

fleshy posterior extension of the hard palate, separating the nasopharynx from the oral cavity

soft palate

17

an epithelial fold that attaches the inferior surface of the tongue to the floor of the mouth

lingual frenulum

18

an enzyme present in some exocrine secretions that has antibiotic properties

lysozyme

19

chewing

mastication

20

crystalline material similar in mineral composition to bone, but harder and without osteocytes, that covers the exposed surfaces of the teeth

enamel

21

bonelike material that forms the body of a tooth; unlike bone, it lacks osteocytes and osteons

dentin

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internal chamber in a tooth, containing blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves, and the cells that maintain the dentin

pulp cavity

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a premolar tooth

bicuspid

24

bicuspids; teeth with flattened surfaces located anterior to the molar teeth

premolars

25

the throat; a muscular passageway shared by the digestive and respiratory tracts

pharynx

26

a muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach

esophagus

27

swallowing

deglutition

28

a compact mass; usually refers to compacted ingested material on its way to the stomach

bolus

29

a semifluid mixture of ingested food and digestive secretions that is in the stomach and proximal small intestine as digestion proceeds

chyme

30

the area of the stomach surrounding its connection with the esophagus

cardia

31

the base of an organ

fundus

32

gastric region between the body of the stomach and the duodenum; includes the pyloric sphincter

pylorus

33

mucosal folds in the lining of the empty stomach that disappear as gastric distention occurs

rugae

34

a large fold of the dorsal mesentery of the stomach that hangs in front of the intestines

greater omentum

35

a small pocket in the mesentery that connects the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver

lesser omentum

36

tubular glands of the stomach whose cells produce acid, enzymes, intrinsic factor, and hormones

gastric glands

37

cell of the gastric glands that secretes HCl and intrinsic factor

parietal cell

38

a compound secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach that aids the intestinal absorption of vitamin B

intrinsic factor

39

gastric enzyme that breaks down a milk protein, resulting in mild coagulation

rennin

40

hormone produced by endocrine cels of the stomach, when exposed to mechanical stimuli or neural (vagal) stimulation, and of the duodenum, when exposed to chyme containing undigested proteins

gastrin

41

the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; the digestive tract between the stomach and large intestine

small intestine

42

the proximal 25 cm of the small intestine that contains short villi and submucosal glands

duodenum

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situated behind or outside the peritoneal cavity

retroperitoneal

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the middle portion of the small intestine

jejunum

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the last 2.5 m of the small intestine

ileum

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a permanent transverse fold in the wall of the small intestine; also called plicae circulares

circular folds

47

a slender projection of the mucous membrane of the small intestine

villus/villi

48

a terminal lymphatic within an intestinal villus

lacteal

49

mucous glands in the submucosa of the duodenum

submucosal glands

50

duodenal hormone that stimulates the contraction of the gall bladder and the secretion of enzymes by the exocrine pancreas

choecystokinin (CCK)

51

digestive organ containing exocrine and endocrine tissues; exocrine portion secretes hormones, including insulin and glucagon

pancreas

52

aggregations of endocrine cells in the pancreas

pancreatic islets

53

a mixture of buffers and digestive enzymes that is discharged into the duodenum under the stimulation of the enzymes secretin and cholecystokinin

pancreatic juice

54

a tubular duct that carries pancreatic juice from the pancreas to the duodenum

pancreatic duct

55

organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio

carbohydrate

56

a pancreatic enzyme that breaks down triglycerides

lipase

57

an organ of the digestive system with varied and vital functions, including the production of plasma proteins, the excretion of bile, the storage of energy reserves, the detoxification of poisons, and the interconversion of nutrients

liver

58

a liver cell

hepatocyte

59

exocrine secretion of the liver that is stored in the gall bladder and ejected in the duodenum

bile

60

duct formed by the union of the cystic duct from the gall bladder and the bile ducts from the liver; terminates at the duodenal ampulla, where it meets the pancreatic duct

common bile duct

61

a duct that carries bile between the gall badder and the common bile duct

cystic duct

62

steroid derivatives in the bile, responsible for the emulsification of ingested lipids

bile salts

63

the physical breakup of fats in the digestive tract, forming smaller droplets accessible to digestive enzymes; normally the result of mixing with bile sals

emulsification

64

pear-shaped reservoir for the bile secreted by the liver

gall bladder

65

the terminal portions of the intestinal tract, consisting of the colon, the rectum, and the anorectal canal

large intestine

66

an expanded pouch at the start of the large intestine

cecum

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a fold of mucous membrane that guards the connection between the ileum and the cecum

ileocecal valve

68

a blind tube connected to the cecum of the large intestine

appendix

69

the large intestine

colon

70

3 longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa of the colon

taeniae coli

71

the last 15 cm of the digestive tract

rectum

72

external opening of the anorectal canal

anus

73

an essential organic nutrient that functions as a coenzyme in vital enzymatic reactions

vitamin

74

complex organic cofactors, usually structurally related to vitamins

coenzyme

75

a spherical aggregation of bile salts, monoglycerides, and fatty acids in the lumen of the intestinal tract

micelle

76

relatively large droplets that may contain tryglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol in association with proteins; synthesized and released by intestinal cells and transported to the venous blood via the lymphatic system

chylomicrons

77

an internal passageway that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus

digestive tract