Ch. 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 18 Deck (15):
1

The term ___ refers to a heritable change in the genetic material.

Mutation

2

Positive side of mutations

They are the foundation for evolutionary change needed for a species to adapt to changes in the environment

3

Negative sides of mutations

New mutations are much more likely to be harmful than beneficial to the individual and often are the cause of diseases

4

Mutations provide ___ ___.

Allelic variations

5

Mutations can be divided into three main types:

- chromosome mutations
- genome mutations
- gene mutations

6

Chromosome mutations -

Changes in chromosome structure

7

Genome mutations

Changes in chromosome number

8

Gene mutations

Relatively small change in DNA structure that affects a single gene

9

A ___ ___ is a change in a single base pair.

Point mutation

10

A point mutation can involve a ___ ___.

Base substitution

11

A ___ is a change of pyrimidine (C, T to another pyrimidine or a purine (A, G) to another purine.

Transition

12

A ___ is a change of a pyrimindine to a purine or vice versa.

Transversion

13

Transitions are more ___ than transversions.

Common

14

___ ___ are those base substitutions that do not alter the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide.

Silent mutations

15

___ ___ are those base substitutions in which an amino acid change does occur.

Missense mutations