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Flashcards in Ch. 2 Connect Deck (47):
1

If an organism has identical alleles for a given trait is it said to be ___.

Homozygous

2

What information can be obtained from a human pedigree?

- how a gene is inherited
- a family history of genetic traits

3

The gamete possibilities of an organism with the genotype Tt are ___ and ___.

T, t

4

Unfilled circle

Unaffected female

5

Filled circle

Affected female

6

Half filled circle

Heterozygous female

7

Circle with line through it

Deceased female

8

A Punnett square is a tool that can be used to predict the expected ratios of a generic cross

- determine the genotype of each parent
- list all of the gamete possibilities from each parent
- create a Punnett square with the gametes of each parent listed across the top or side of each column or row
- determine possible offspring genotype last by filling in the empty boxes with the symbol across the top or side of each column or row
- analyze the relative proportion of each genotype and phenotype of the offspring

9

When flipping a coin, what is the probability of the coin landing with the head side up?

50%

10

A tall pea plant is crossed with a short pea plant. What type of cross is this?

- single-factor cross
- monohybrid cross

11

What is the term to describe the basic unit of heredity that influences an organism's traits?

Gene

12

Father of genetics

Gregor Mendel

13

What term describes the outward expression or observable characteristics of a gene?

Phenotype

14

A pea plant will have green seeds if it has at least one green allele in its genome. A plant will have yellow seeds only if it has two alleles for the yellow seed phenotype. What conclusions can be drawn based on this information?

- a plant that has a green allele and yellow allele will likely have green seeds
- yellow seeds are recessive to green seeds

15

List the steps that would be used to predict the outcome of a genetic cross with the binomial expansion equation in the correct order

- calculate the individual probabilities of an event occurring
- determine the number of outcomes in a category
- substitute the values of p, q, x, and n in the binomial expansion equation

16

The product rule can be used to..

Predict the probability of independent events

17

When there is a deviation between the observed and expected outcomes it is called random ___

Sampling error

18

What term is used to describe the offspring of a genetic cross between organisms with distinctly different traits for a particular character?

Hybrid

19

Which of the following would be classified as the P generation?

True-breeding parents that are crossed

20

What is the term that describes an alternative form of a gene?

Allele

21

What is the expected phenotypic ratio when a plant that is heterozygous for two traits is allowed to self fertilize?

9:3:3:1

22

A tall pea plant with purple flowers is crossed with a short pea plant with white flowers. What type of cross is this?

Two-factor cross
Dihybrid cross

23

What term describes the combination of alleles an individual has?

Genotype

24

Based on Mendel's law of independent assortment, an organism with the genotype AaBb should form gametes with which of the following ratios?

1 AB: 1 Ab : 1 aB : 1 ab

25

Which of the following are examples of a true-breeding strain?

- a strain of talk plants with purple flowers that have produced the same phenotype for several generations
- strain of short plants whose parents and grandparents were all short

26

If a genetic study began with your grandparents, which generation would represent you and your siblings?

F2

27

List the steps that would be used to analyze a genetic cross with the chi square test.

- propose a hypothesis to calculate the expected value based on Mendel's laws
- calculate the expected values of the phenotypes
- apply the chi square formula using the expected values
- interpret the expected chi square value using a chi square table

28

Select all of the reasons that the common garden pea, Pisum sativum, was an ideal species to study genetic crosses.

- the plants could be self-fertilized
- the plant has distinct varieties
- cross pollination was simple due to the large flower size

29

Self-fertilization is a cross in which...

The pollen and egg come from the same plant

30

A Tt pea plant will be tall. The symbol Tt represents the plants ___

Genotype

31

An organism that has two different alleles for a single trait is ___

Heterozygous

32

When analyzing genetic crosses using the laws of probability, the sum of all independent events occurring must add up to..

100%

33

In pea plants yellow seeds are dominant to green seeds. If the letters "Y" and "y" denote the two alleles of this gene, what is the genotype of a plant with green seeds?

yy

34

Why was the common garden pea an ideal specimen to study genetic cross?

True breeding with two distinct genotypes and phenotypes

35

A trait that is expressed with a single allele is ___

Dominant

36

Which of the following represent heterozygous genotypes?

Cc
BbCc

37

A tall pea plant is crossed with a short pea plant. What type of cross is this?

Monohybrid cross
Single-factor cross

38

___ refers to the likelihood that an event will occur

Probability

39

Which operation of probability should be used to analyze genetic crosses in which the problem has an unordered combination of outcomes?

Binomial expansion

40

True regarding recessive inheritance

- all offspring of two affected individuals will be affected
- two heterozygotes will generally have affected offspring 25% of the time

41

List the events of pollination

- sperm are produced in pollen grains and eggs are formed in the ovules
- pollen grain lands on stigma
- pollen tube forms
- sperm travel to ehh where fertilization occurs
- second sperm fuses with central cell containing polar nuclei to create the endosperm

42

A tomato plant produces fruit with red and green stripes on the skin. The skin color and pattern describe the ___ of the tomato

Phenotype

43

The genotype AAbbCCdd is

Homozygous

44

In pea plants yellow seeds are dominant to green seeds. What are the possible genotypes of a plant with yellow seeds?

YY
Yy

45

The gamete possibilities of an organism with the genotype Tt are ___ and ___.

T
t

46

A cross in which the pollen and egg come from different plants is called ___

Cross fertilization

47

A hypothesis used to predict results is called...

A null hypothesis