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Flashcards in Ch. 2 Deck (25):
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ecology

the scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with their environments are studied

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biosphere

portion of Earth that supports life

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biotic factors

living factors in an organism's environment

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abiotic factors

nonliving factors in an organism's environment

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population

individual organisms of a single species that share the same geographic location at the same time

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biological community

group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time

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ecosystem

biological community and all abiotic factors that affect it

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biome

large group of ecosystems in the same climate and have similar types of communities

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habitat

area where an organism lives

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predation

act of one organism pursuing and consuming another organism for food

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symbiosis

close relationship that exists when two or more species live together

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mutualism

relationship between two or more organisms that live closely together and benefit from eachother

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commensalism

relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is neither helped nor harmed

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parasitism

a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of another organism

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autotroph

an organism that collects energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce food

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heterotrophs

an organism that gets its energy requirements by consuming other organisms

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omnivores

organisms that eat both plants and animals

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detrtivores

eat fragments of dead matter in an ecosystem, return nurtrients to the soil, air, and water where the nutrients can be reused my organisms

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tropic level

each step in a food chain or food web

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food chain

simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystem

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food web

model representing the many interconnected food chains and pathways in which energy flows through a group of organisms

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biomass

total mass of living matter at each trophic level

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biogechemical cycle

exchange of matter through the biosphere

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nitrogen fixation

process of capture and conversion of nitrogen into a form that is usable by plants

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denitrification

process in which some soil bacteria convert fixed nitrogen compounds back into nitrogen gas, which returns it to the atmosphere.