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Flashcards in Ch 2: General Anatomy Deck (64)
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1

som(at)-o-

General Anatomy

the body

somat-o-path-o-genet-icist = one who specializes in the science of the production of diseases of the body

som-o-kinet-algia = pain _involving_ the movement of the body

2

epiderm(at)-o-

the epidermis

3

cephal-o-

the head

4

prosop-o-

the face`

5

faci-o-

the face

6

thorac-o-

the chest

7

steth-o-

the chest

8

omphal-o-

the navel

9

umbil(ic)-o-

the navel

10

cervic-o-

the neck

11

trachel-o-

the neck

12

Anthrop-o-

humanity

antrop-o-log-ist = one who studies humanity

antrop-o-genic = _produced by_ humanity
=> we might expect a term like "anthropogenic climate change" to mean "climate change _producing humanity_", but of course this is not how the term is actually used.

13

derm(at)-o-

epiderm(at)-o-

General Anatomy

derm(at)-o- the skin

epiderm(at)-o- the epidermis

epi-derm-o-lyt-ic
=> p.t. the disintegration of the epidermis (diagnostic)
=> p.t. the separation of the adhesions of the epidermis (therapeutic)

14

cyt-o-

General Anatomy

cyt-o- cell

-x-o-cyt-e- = a cell of x

laryng-o-cyt-e = a cell of the larynx

dermato-o-cyt-ic = p.t. (a/the) cell(s) of the skin
=> p.t. a cell of the skin
=> p.t. the cells of the skin
=> p.t. cells of the skin

15

arthr-o-

General Anatomy

joint

arthr-itis - the inflammation of (a/the) joint(s)

arthr-al-itis = the inflammation of _something_ p.t. (a/the) joint(s)

arthr-o-kinet-o-metr-icist = one who specializes in the science of the measurement of the movement of (a/the) joint(s).

16

acr-o-

General Anatomy

extreme parts (extremities)

note that acr-o often functions as a prefix, i.e. its meaning belongs to that of the combining form which it immediately precedes

=> acromastitis

acr-o-mast-itis = the inflammation of the extremities of a breast

acr-o-mast-itis = the inflammation of a breast, involving the extremities (of the breast)

these mean the same thing

17

mel-o-

General Anatomy (limb)

mel-o-acr-it-ic = p.t. the inflammation of the extremities of the limbs

arthr-o-mel-it-ic
=/=> p.t. the inflammation of the limbs of the joints

==>p.t. the inflammation of the limbs, involving the joints

==>p.t. the inflammation of the limbs and the joints

18

subordination and coordination

A) "of" (subordination)

B) "involving"

C) "and" (coordination)

19

Cytopathogenetic

sub and coord

A) “of” (subordination)
B) “involving”
C) “and” (coordination)

cyt-o-path-o-genet-ic

==>p.t. the production of diseases of cells

=/=>p.t. the production of diseases, involving cells

=/=>p.t. the production of diseases and cells

Subordinate (with “of”) whenever possible

20

faciocephalalgia

sub and coord

A) “of” (subordination)
B) “involving”
C) “and” (coordination)

faci-o-cephal-algia

=/=>pain in the head of the face

==>pain in the head, involving the face

=/=>pain in the head and the face

Use “involving” when subordination makes no sense, but when the things in question are notequal. In this example, the face and head are not equal because the face is simply part of the head.

The use of “involving” is especially common when describing disorders, e.g. z-x-itis (“the inflammation of x, involving z”).

21

pedocheiroanesthesia

sub and coord

A) “of” (subordination)
B) “involving”
C) “and” (coordination)

ped-o-cheir-o-anesthesia

=/=>the loss of perception in the hands of the feet

=/=>the loss of perception in the hands, involving the feet

==>the loss of perception in the handsandfeet

==>the loss of perception in the feetandhands

Coordinate (with “and”) when subordination makes no sense, and the parts in question are equal. A sure sign of such equality is that the order of coordinated parts can be switched without changing the meaning of the definition, as in the above example.

Note that it is often ambiguous whether “involving” or “and” is better, and often either is acceptable.

The use of “and” is especially common when describing anatomy.

22

Sub and coord

terminations that have "of" or "involving" in their definitions: the ABC rules do not apply

==> examples

x-itis: _the inflammation of x_ (never “involving x”)

x-osis: _an abnormal condition involving_ x (never “of x”)

23

mel-o-

General Anatomy

limb

acr-o-mel-ot-o-plasty
=> The surgical repairing of something involving an abnormal condition involving the extremities of the limbs

Recall that acr-o often acts as a prefix

24

cephal-o-

General Anatomy

the head

en-cephal-itis => inflammation of something inside the head

=> en meaning inside is another prefix

25

trich-o-

General Anatomy

hair

trich-(in)-osis
=> an abnormal condition involving a (substance of) [the] hair

=> this refers to a disease caused by the trichinella genus of roundworms

26

ot-o

General Anatomy

ear

note the similarity to the combining form of x-osis (x-ot-o)

when referring to the ear, to will tend to come at the beginning of a term

otherwise "ot" is likely to be a form of x-osis

27

ot-o-laryng-o-logy

=/=> the study of the larynx of the ear

==> the study of the larynx, involving an/the ear(s)

28

acr-ot-algia

pain involving an abnormal condition involving the extremities

pain involving the extremities of an/the ear(s)

29

derm-ot-ic

p.t. an abnormal condition involving the skin

30

ot-o-dermat-osis

an abnormal condition involving the skin of an/the ear(s)

31

faci-o-

General Anatomy

the face

faci-al
=> p.t. the face

32

cervic-o

General Anatomy

the neck
the cervix uteri (i.e. the neck of the uterus)

33

cervical

General Anatomy

p.t. the neck
p.t. the cervix uteri

34

trachel-o

General Anatomy

the neck

trachel-ectomy
=/=> the cutting out of the neck
=/=> the cutting out of something involving the neck
==> the cutting out of the cervix of the uterus

35

acromelodysplasia

acr-o-mel-o-dysplasia

NOT acr-om-el-o-dysplasia

=> the defective formation of the extremities of a/the limb(s)

36

branchi-o

brachi-o-ancon-ot-ic

General Anatomy

brachi-o= arm

brachi-o-ancon-ot-ic

=/=>p.t. an abnormal condition involving the elbow of the arm

There is no need for a term with such a definition, since elbows are only found on the arms: “anconotic” would be a simpler way of saying the same thing.

==>p.t. an abnormal condition involving an elbow, involving an arm

37

ancon-o

ancon-o-brachi-ot-ic

General Anatomy

ancon-o = elbow

ancon-o-brachi-ot-ic

=/=>p.t. an abnormal condition involving an arm of an elbow

Subordination impossible: elbows do not have arms of their own.

==>p.t. an abnormal condition involving an arm, involving an elbow

38

ch(e)ir-o

General Anatomy

hand

cheir-urge-on
=> one who works with their hands (greek)

cheirurgeon >>> surgeon

as an adjectival form, we say manu-al, from the Latin manus (hand)

39

dactyl-o

General Anatomy

digit

cheir-o-dactyl-ia
=> an abnormal condition involving a/the digit(s) of a/the hand(s)

the is not redundant because their is also digits of the foot

40

onych-o

General Anatomy

nail

dactyl-onych-o-schist-ic

=> p.t. the splitting of a/the nail(s), involving a/the digit(s)

41

mast-o

General Anatomy

breast
=> this form can refer to the mammary glands of a breast, or to a part of a breast, or to a whole breast as an area

42

thel-e

General Anatomy

nipple
=> usage of the combining vowel e

thel-e-plasty
+> the surgical repairing of a/the nipple(s)

thely-genic
=> producing female offspring

43

brachiokinetic

brachi-o-kinet-ic – p.t. the movement of an/the
arm(s)

44

brachialokinetic

brachi-al-o-kinet-ic – p.t. the movement of
something p.t. an/the arm(s)

45

cytoplasia

cyt-o-plasia – the formation of (a/the) cell(s)

46

cyticoplasia

cyt-ic-o-plasia- the formation of something p.t.
(a/the) cell(s)

47

omphalostomy

omphal-o-stomy

48

umbilicocele

umbilic-o-cele

49

blepharosclerotic

blephar-o-sclerot-ic

50

cephalotomy

cephal-o-tomy

51

dactylographist

dactyl-o-graph-ist – one who records something
involving the digits

52

dactylographics

dactyl-o-graph-ics – the science of the recording of
something involving the digits

53

dactylography

dactyl-o-graphy – the recording of something
involving the digits

54

anconopathogeneticist

ancon-o-path-o-genet-icist – one who specializes in the science of
the production of diseases of the elbow

55

rhinotiatric

rhin-ot-iatr-ic – p.t. the healing of an abnormal condition involving
the nose

56

acromeloplasty

acr-o-mel-o-plasty – the surgical repairing of the extremities of the
limbs

57

cytotropin

cyt-o-trop-in – a substance which preferentially affects the cells

58

dactylicodystrophic

dactyl-ic-o-dystroph-ic – p.t. the defective growth of something
p.t. the digits

59

trachelorrhagic

trachel-o-rrhag-ic – p.t. the rapid flowing of something from
the neck

60

craniostenotology

crani-o-stenot-o-logy – the study of the narrowing of the skull

61

thoracicectomize

thorac-ic-ectom-ize – to cut out something p.t. the chest

62

arthralostomic

arthr-al-o-stom-ic – p.t. the making of an opening in
something p.t. the joints

63

brachialasthenic

brachi-al-asthen-ic – p.t. the lack of strength of
something p.t. the arms

64

otocentetotherapy

ot-o-centet-o-therapy – treatment by means of the
surgical puncturing of the ears