Ch 2: Phonetic Transcription of English Flashcards Preview

CD 208 Clinical Application of Phonetics > Ch 2: Phonetic Transcription of English > Flashcards

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Phonetic Alphabet

An alphabet that contains a separate letter for each individual sound in a language.

1

Allographs

Different letter sequences or patterns that represent the same sound.

2

Digraphs

Pairs of letters that represent one sound.

3

Morpheme

The smallest unit of language capable of carrying meaning.

4

Free Morpheme

Morphemes that can stand alone and still carry meaning.

5

Bound Morpheme

Morphemes that are bound to other words and carry no meaning when they stand alone.

7

Minimal Pairs or Minimal Contrasts

Words that vary by only one phoneme (in the same word position).

8

Allophone

A variant pronunciation of a particular phoneme

9

Complementary Distribution

When two allophones of the same phonemic family are found in distinctly different phonetic environments and are not free to vary in terms of where in the mouth they may be produced.

10

Aspirated Phoneme

When a small puff of air is released after the phoneme is sounded (Example is the /p/ in "pit").

11

Unaspirated Phoneme

When a phoneme is sounded without aspiration following (Example is the /p/ in "spit").

12

Free Variation

When the phonetic environment has no bearing on particular allophones (Example is whether /p/ is aspirated or unaspirated).

13

Syllable

A basic building block of language that may be composed of either one vowel alone, or a vowel in combination with one or more consonants. Consists of an onset, nucleus, and coda, but does not always use all three types of phonemes.

14

Syllable Components

Onset and Rhyme. Rhyme breaks down further into Nucleus and Coda.

15

Onset

All the consonants that precede a vowel in a syllable. Not all syllables contain an onset.

16

Nucleus

Typically a vowel, but can be a syllabic consonant.

17

Coda

Either single consonants or consonant clusters that follow the nucleus of a syllable. Not all syllables have a coda.

18

Consonant Cluster

Two or three contiguous consonants in the same syllable.

19

Syllabic Consonants

When consonants take on the role of vowels.

20

Sigma (σ)

Used to indicate a syllable division.

21

Null (φ)

Indicates the absence of the onset or coda.

22

Open Syllables

Syllables that end with a vowel phoneme (no coda).

23

Closed Syllables

Syllables that end with a consonant phoneme (coda).

24

Word Stress, Lexical Stress, or Word Accent

The increased emphasis in the production of one syllable.

25

In English, words that have more than one syllable will always . . .

Have one particular syllable that will receive primary stress.

26

Word Class

Words that vary in part of speech (whether a word is a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.)

27

Change in stress . . .

(1) Can change the meaning of a word, and (2) can change its pronunciation.

28

Systematic Phonemic Transcription

Transcription of speech that makes no attempt at transcribing allophonic variation. Also considered a broad transcription, or simply phonemic transcription.

29

Systematic Narrow Transcription

Relies on specialized symbols, called diacritics, to show modifications in the production of a vowel or consonant phoneme during transcription.

30

Impressionistic Transcription

A type of transcription where nothing is known about a particular speech sound system prior to analysis. It is another form of narrow transcription that can also be employed when working with a child who has a severe speech sound disorder affecting the rules associated with typical speech development.