Flashcards in Ch 2: Phonetic Transcription of English Deck (31)
An alphabet that contains a separate letter for each individual sound in a language.
Different letter sequences or patterns that represent the same sound.
Pairs of letters that represent one sound.
The smallest unit of language capable of carrying meaning.
Morphemes that can stand alone and still carry meaning.
Morphemes that are bound to other words and carry no meaning when they stand alone.
Minimal Pairs or Minimal Contrasts
Words that vary by only one phoneme (in the same word position).
A variant pronunciation of a particular phoneme
When two allophones of the same phonemic family are found in distinctly different phonetic environments and are not free to vary in terms of where in the mouth they may be produced.
When a small puff of air is released after the phoneme is sounded (Example is the /p/ in "pit").
When a phoneme is sounded without aspiration following (Example is the /p/ in "spit").
When the phonetic environment has no bearing on particular allophones (Example is whether /p/ is aspirated or unaspirated).
A basic building block of language that may be composed of either one vowel alone, or a vowel in combination with one or more consonants. Consists of an onset, nucleus, and coda, but does not always use all three types of phonemes.
Onset and Rhyme. Rhyme breaks down further into Nucleus and Coda.
All the consonants that precede a vowel in a syllable. Not all syllables contain an onset.
Typically a vowel, but can be a syllabic consonant.
Either single consonants or consonant clusters that follow the nucleus of a syllable. Not all syllables have a coda.
Two or three contiguous consonants in the same syllable.
When consonants take on the role of vowels.
Used to indicate a syllable division.
Indicates the absence of the onset or coda.
Syllables that end with a vowel phoneme (no coda).
Syllables that end with a consonant phoneme (coda).
Word Stress, Lexical Stress, or Word Accent
The increased emphasis in the production of one syllable.
In English, words that have more than one syllable will always . . .
Have one particular syllable that will receive primary stress.
Words that vary in part of speech (whether a word is a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.)
Change in stress . . .
(1) Can change the meaning of a word, and (2) can change its pronunciation.
Systematic Phonemic Transcription
Transcription of speech that makes no attempt at transcribing allophonic variation. Also considered a broad transcription, or simply phonemic transcription.
Systematic Narrow Transcription
Relies on specialized symbols, called diacritics, to show modifications in the production of a vowel or consonant phoneme during transcription.