Ch. 3: Cell physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 3: Cell physiology Deck (38):

How are cells found

In different shapes and sizes
1 billion cells per kilogram of tissue(2 billion per lbs)
10% of all cells in the body are replaced every minute
Components within cells and cell function changes as a result of aging, disease, and exercise


What type of cells have a high turnover and which cells have low turnover

Skin cells
Cardiac and skeletal muscle cells/fibers


What is an example of a cell changing shape

When a patient has a heart attack the cardiac cells die and cannot be replaced


What is example of cell death in skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle fibers die and cannot be healed to normal or full function


Changes in structure and function of a cell within an organ will ultimately ______________________

influence the function of the whole body
All changes affect your cells


What are the four common components of the cell

Plasma membrane
Organelles-little organs


What are four compositions of plasma membrane

Lipids - phospholipids (most common)
proteins - integral proteins and peripheral (extracellular) proteins
cholesterol - components of plasma membrane found in lipid Bilayer
glycolipids and glycoproteins- sugarcoated


What is the fluid Mosaic model

Representation of the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane


Proteins float and move with the_________ __________
Integral proteins span the entire__________ ___________

Plasma membrane
Lipid Bilayer


What are phospholipids

They had two components consisting of a phosphate head and a fatty acid tail
Head-polar in hydrophilic (water loving) outside the layer
Tail-nonpolar hydrophobic (does not like water) inside the layer


What are fluid compartments

Chemicals in the extracellular and intracellular fluid can be classified on a solubility continuum


What is an example of water soluble and lipid soluble?

Water soluble: glucose, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+)
Lipid Soluble: O2, CO2, cortisol (stress hormone)


What is the functional significance of lipid bilayer

Plasma membrane is a selectively in permeable barrier
Hydrophobic area:
-restricts the passage of water soluble molecules (lipids, oils and water don't mix)
-allows for lipid Soluble molecules and gases to diffuse across membrane


What are two different type of membrane proteins and describe them

Integral proteins-span the width of the membrane
Peripheral proteins - are on the innercellular and extracellular surfaces (inner and outer surface of plasma membrane)


What are the functions of integral membrane proteins and what are some examples

Channels: passage of water-soluble molecules in water
Carrier proteins: transport of water-soluble molecules
Receptors: allow for water-soluble molecules to communicate with the cell
Adhesion molecules: "docking structures" for cells to adhere to and to communicate with each other ex. (cell to cell adhesion to form tissue)


Integral proteins that are channels are ___________

Come in or out of the cell both directions
Water can enter in the cell through the channel in the can also leave through the channel
Ex.) door opening and closing
Ex.) Na+ channel and K+ channel


Diffusion goes from an area of ______ concentration to an area of _______ solute concentration

High to low


Integral membrane proteins such as channels that do not use extracellular fluid only occur in the

Cardiac muscle


Communication between cells without using extracellular fluid is called



Integral proteins carrier is

Locking key affect very specific to which molecule can be transported
The door is not continuously open, it is like a revolving door
This carrier is specific to glucose only


Integral membrane receptor

Secretory cell uses a hormone or chemical messenger to binds to the receptor of the target cell
-this is the docking say for various water-soluble molecules locking key method Also applies


Integral proteins with adhesion molecules

Example are cadherin proteins


Peripheral membrane proteins consists of

Extracellular surface and intracellular surface


What components make up the extracellular surface

Enzymes which are biological catalysts
adhesion molecules
receptors or foreign antigens


What components make up the intracellular surface

Enzymes which speed up chemical reactions
"anchoring site" for intracellular proteins


What is an example of a peripheral protein that anchor for intracellular proteins is

Skeletal muscle cell/fiber
Large number of Peripheral protein
Interaction between muscle fibers


What are some examples of other membrane components

Cholesterol is the influence membrane fluidity
Glycolipids aggregation of cells and cell to cell interaction
Glycoproteins are aggregation of cells and cell to cell interaction and receptors


⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️what are the functions of the plasma membrane

Forms the basis structure of the cell
Selective permeable barrier
- which restricts the passage of water soluble molecules
-Allows for passage of lipid Soluble molecules/gases
Detect chemical messages carried by water soluble molecules via receptors
Link adjacent cells be a membrane proteins, glycolipids, Oregon glycoproteins
Anchor for intracellular structures


What is cytoplasm

Area between plasma membrane and nucleus
Portion of the cell interior not occupied by the nucleus
Fluid portion
-intracellular fluid


What is the cytoskeleton

Rail system or cable car for movement of organelles and vesicles
Highly organized complex protein found in the cytoplasm lattice structure


What are the functions of cytoskeleton

Give structural support
⭐️Anchor for organelles
Movement of organelles or vesicles in the cytoplasm
Movement of a cell (example muscle fiber, white blood cells chasing bacteria)


What is the nucleus

Largest organelle
Also in the body have a single nucleus except
-skeletal muscle cells/fiber
-many nuclei my multinucleated
-Red blood cells
-no nucleus


What is the function of the nucleus

Storage and transmission of information
-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or genes
Nucleus initiates proteins synthesis but the bulk of the protein synthesis occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum


What is endoplasmic reticulum

RER which is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (granular)
-Full of protein synthesis occurs
-has ribosomes
SER which is smooth endoplasmic reticulum (agranular)
-no protein synthesis
-No ribosomes
-fatty acids can be Synthesized
-stores and releases calcium


What is the Golgi apparatus

Packaging warehouse
Functions include:
-modifying proteins:
-add CHO = glycoprotein
-add lipid = glycolipid
-"decides" which proteins are secreted and which remain in the cell


What are lysosomes

-Oval organelles surrounded by a single membrane
-Cells typically contain greater than 100 lysosomes
-Fluid within lysosomes are acidic and contains digestive enzymes and -chemicals (example free radicals)
-"Cellular stomachs"
-cell debris damage cell components


What is mitochondrion

2 Unique lipid bilayers
All cells except red blood cells have a mitochondrion
Major site of energy ATP production
-produced via consumption of oxygen aerobic


What is a cell?

The basic unit of structure and function in the body