Ch. 7 Metabolism III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 7 Metabolism III Deck (48):
1

What are the metabolic reactions/pathways: aerobic conditions in long term energy systems

Carbohydrate (glucose and glycogen)
glycolysis
glycogenolysis
gluconeogenesis

2

What are the metabolic reaction pathways in aerobic conditions long term energy systems

Triglycerides
lipolysis
beta oxidation

3

What are the metabolic reaction pathways in aerobic conditions long term energy systems

Protein
Proteolysis

4

What are the metabolic reaction pathways in aerobic conditions long term energy systems

Common to all substrates is the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain

5

To get ATP from triglycerides you must have ______ ________

Aerobic conditions

6

What is the main triglycerides storage

Adipocytes that sells main storage of triglycerides
Adipocytes aggregate to form adipose tissue
Adipocytes are a cell because they do have a nucleus

7

What is the second type of triglycerides storage

Blood
-Chylomicron
-lipoproteins

8

Why are cells stored in triglycerides in the cytoplasm

Because it is very concentrated

9

What is the third type of triglyceride storage

Cytoplasm of cells
Intracellular triglycerides
A lot of ATP are stored in triglycerides

10

Lipolysis gets turned on by

hormones to activate lipases (hormone sensitive lipase)

11

Where is lipolysis stored

In an area in which triglycerides are stored

12

Fatty acid's in the circulation are transported bound to ________(plasma protein)

Albumin

13

Fatty acid albumin complex circulates, dissociates when it reaches tissues, and free fatty acids enter the cytoplasm of cells via

Simple diffusion

14

Activation and transport into mitochondria occurs in

Outer mitochondria membrane

15

The activation in transport into the mitochondria involve attaching a carrier molecule to the fatty acid reaction that cost how many ATP

2

16

What is beta oxidation

Beta oxidation is a series of reactions in which 2 carbons from Acyl-CoA are cut off building in the formation of acetyl CoA

17

Where does beta oxidation occur

Mitochondrial matrix

18

Each cycle of Beta oxidation produces

1 acetyl CoA
1NADH
1FADH2

19

The Krebs cycle produces

3NADH
1FADH2
1ATP

20

One acetyl CoA produces how many ATP

12 ATP

21

With 16 carbon fatty acid chain how many net ATP are total

129

22

With 16 carbon fatty acid chain how many ATP are you'll did from 7 NADH x 3 ATP/NADH

21 ATP

23

With 16 carbon fatty acid chain how many ATP are from 7 FADH2 × 2 ATP/FADH2

14 ATP

24

With the 16 carbon fatty acid chain how many ATP come from 8 acetyl CoA x 12 ATP/Acetyl CoA

96 ATP

25

The total number of 131 ATP minus the two activation ATP yields a net ATP of ____ for 16 carbon fatty acid chain

129

26

The primary energy system to support ATP is

Triglycerides

27

There are a lot of triglycerides in adipose tissue with

Low intensity activity

28

What is intracellular triglycerides

The ATP yield from triglycerides stored in the cytoplasm are the same as those stored in adipose tissue

29

Skeletal muscle does not have the enzyme to use

Glycerol

30

ATP yield is faster in stored glycerides then _______ glycerides

Transported

31

What is the regulation of lipolysis controlled by

Endocrine system

32

What are several hormones that get secreted in the blood circulate and turn on lipolysis

Glucagon and epinephrine

33

Other hormones in the blood can inhibit lipolysis

Insulin

34

True or false exercising a group of muscles example of abdominal muscles promotes lipolysis only in the adipose tissue that surrounds the active muscle

False

35

True or false exercise will promote lipolysis of triglycerides stored in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers that are active during the exercise

True

36

___________is released from adipose tissue into the blood

Glycerol

37

Glycerol is taken up by the liver in used to synthesize glucose via

Gluconeogenesis

38

What is gluconeogenesis

Synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrate
-reactions take place in the liver,mlargely in response to low blood glucose concentration
-as a result of glucoseneogenesis blood glucose concentrations rise

39

Glucose to pyruvate is called

Glycolysis
exothermic

40

Pyruvate to glucose is called

Gluconeogenesis
Endothermic

41

The______ is the only organ that is equipped to make glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates

Liver

42

What is Glycogenolysis

Breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver

43

What is Gluconeogenesis

Synthesizing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources
example glycerol in amino acids

44

When liver glycogen is normal that uses glycogenesis to maintain blood glucose level until it empties then uses __________

Gluconeogenesis

45

What is the significance of gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis serves a means by which glucose can be made available to the brain when liver glycogen stores/blood glucose are low

46

Cells of the CNS need glucose to synthesize

ATP

47

Period of no food, low carbohydrates, high-protein causes a __________in blood glucose this is not adequate amount of blood glucose support so function

decrease

48

In the long term energy system what are the substrates

Blood glucose
triglycerides
glycogen (muscle and liver )
protein