Ch. 3 - Introduction to Urinalysis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 3 - Introduction to Urinalysis Deck (64)
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1

Give the two unique characteristics of a urine specimen

Readily available and easily collected specimen
Contains information, which can be obtained by inexpensive laboratory tests, about many of the body's major metabolic functions.

2

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute defines urinalysis as

"The testing of urine with procedures commonly performed in an expeditious, reliable, accurate, safe and cost-effective manner."

3

Enumerate the reasons for performing a urinalysis identified by the CLSI

Aiding in the diagnosis of disease
Screening asymptomatic populations for undetected disorders
Monitoring the progress of disease and the effectiveness of therapy

4

The kidneys continuously form urine as an _____ of plasma.

Ultrafiltrate

5

What is the average daily urine output?

1,200 mL - 1,500 mL

6

Urine is ___% water and ___% solutes.

95; 5

7

Enumerate factors that influence the concentration of solutes in urine

Body metabolism
Endocrine functions
Body position

8

An organic component in urine that is a metabolic waste product produced in the liver from the breakdown of protein and amino acids; this accounts for nearly half of the total dissolved solids in urine

Urea

9

Aside from urea, what other organic substances can be found in urine?

Creatinine
Uric acid

10

This is the major inorganic solid dissolved in urine.

Chloride, followed by sodium and potassium

11

Enumerate formed elements that can be found in urine. These are not part of the original plasma filtrate and increased amounts are often indicative of disease.

Cells
Casts
Crystals
Mucus
Bacteria

12

When determining whether a fluid is urine, the specimen can be tested for its _____ and _____ content. These substances are present in much higher concentrations in urine than in other body fluids.

Urea
Creatinine

13

Urine volume depends on the amount of _____ that the kidneys excrete.

Water

14

Enumerate factors that influence urine volume

Fluid intake
Fluid loss from non renal sources
Variations in the secretion of ADH
Need to excrete increased amounts of dissolved solids, such as glucose or salts

15

Although the normal daily output is usually 1200 to 1500 mL, a range of ___ to ___ mL is considered normal.

600 to 2000

16

The condition wherein there is decreased urine output

Oliguria

17

What is the level of urine for infants suffering from oliguria?

1 mL/kg/hr

18

What is the level of urine for children suffering from oliguria?

0.5 mL/kg/hr

19

What is the level of urine for adults suffering from oliguria?

400 mL/day

20

Oliguria is commonly seen when the body enters a state of dehydration as a result of excessive water loss from what conditions or instances?

Vomiting
Diarrhea
Perspiration
Severe burns

21

The condition where there is a cessation of urine flow; this may result from any serious damage to the kidneys or from a decrease in the flow of blood to the kidneys.

Anuria

22

The kidneys excrete two to three times (more/less) urine during the day than during the night.

More

23

The term used to describe increased nocturnal excretion of urine.

Nocturia

24

The term used to describe increase in daily urine volume.

Polyuria

25

What is the level of urine for children suffering from polyuria?

2.5 - 3 mL/kg/hr

26

What is the level of urine for adults suffering from polyuria?

2.5 L/day

27

Polyuria is usually associated with what types of diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes insipidus

28

Enumerate factors that can artificially induce polyuria

Diuretics
Caffeine
Alcohol
- suppress the secretion of ADH

29

A type of diabetes producing polyuria that is caused by a defect either in the pancreatic production of insulin or in the function of insulin, which results in an increased body glucose concentration. Increased amounts of water must be excreted to remove the dissolved glucose from the body

Diabetes mellitus

30

Although appearing to be dilute, a urine specimen from a patient with diabetes mellitus has a (high/low) specific gravity because of the increased glucose content.

High