Ch. 2 - Renal Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 2 - Renal Function Deck (86)
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1

Functional units of the kidney

Nephron

2

Enumerate the 2 types of nephrons

Cortical
Juxtamedullary

3

Makes up 85% of the nephrons, primarily situated in the cortex of the kidney and responsible for removal of waste products and reabsorption of nutrients

Cortical nephrons

4

Type of nephron that has a longer loop of Henle that extends deep into to the medulla of the kidney. Primary function is concentration of the urine

Juxtamedullary nephron

5

What renal functions control the ability of the kidney to clear waste products selectively from the blood and simultaneously maintain the body's essentail water and electrolyte balances?

Renal blood flow
Glomerular filtration
Tubular reabsorption
Tubular secretion

6

What supplies blood to the kidney?

Renal artery

7

Blood enters the capillaries of the nephron through the _____.

Afferent arteriole

8

Blood flows through the glomerulus and into the _____.

Efferent arteriole

9

The (smaller/larger) size of the efferent arteriole increases the glomerular capillary pressure.

Smaller

10

Before returning to the renal vein, blood from the efferent arteriole enters the _____ and the _____ and flows slowly through the cortex and medulla of the kidney close to the tubules.

Peritubular capillaries
Vasa Recta

11

The immediate reabsorption of essential substances ocuurs in the _____.

Proximal convoluted tubule

12

Final adjustment of urine concentration occurs in the _____

Distal convoluted tubule

13

The major exchange of water and salt between the blood and medullary interstitium take place in what area?

Loop of Henle

14

This exchange maintains the osmotic gradient (salt concentration) in the medulla.

Exchange of water and salt between the blood and medullary interstitium.

15

Based on the average size of 1.73 m^2, the total renal blood flow is approximately _____, and the total renal plasma flow ranges _____.

1,200 mL/min, 600 - 700 mL/min

16

The glomerulus consists of a coil of approximately eight capillary lobes referred to as the _____

Capillary tufts

17

It is located within the Bowman's capsule; it seves as a non-selective filter of plasma substances with molecular weights of less than 70,000.

Glomerulus

18

Forms the beginning of the renal tubule

Bowman's capsule

19

Enumerate the factors that influence the actual filtration rate in the kidney

Cellular structure of the capillary walls and Bowman's capsule
Hydrostatic and Oncotic pressure
Feedback mechanisms of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

20

The plasma filtrate must pass through three cellular layers in the glomerulus which are:

Capillary wall membrane
Basement membrane
Visceral epithelium of Bowman's capsule

21

The _____ cells of the capillary wall contains pores and are referred to as fenestrated.

Endothelial

22

The pores in the endothelial cells increase capillary permeability but do not allow the passage of _____ and _____ cells

Large molecules and Blood cells.

23

By increasing or decreasing the size of the (Afferent/Efferent) arteriole, an autoregulatory mechanism within the juxtaglomerulal apparatus maintains the glomerular blood pressure at a relatively constant rate regardless of fluctuations in systemic blood pressure.

Afferent

24

RAAS stands for

Rein-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System

25

Controls the regulation of the flow of blood to and within the glomerulus. Responds to changes in blood pressure and plasma sodium content.

RAAS

26

Monitors the changes in blood pressure and plasma sodium content.

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

27

Consists of Juxtaglomerular cells in the afferent arteriole and the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

28

Low _____ content decreases water retention within the circulatory system, resulting in a decreased overall blood volume and subsequent decrease in blood pressure.

Plasma sodium

29

An enzyme produced by the juxtaglomerular cells. Secreted when the macula densa senses changes such as the decrease in low plasma sodium content, overall blood volume, and blood pressure.

Renin

30

Reacts with the blood-borne substrate angiotensinogen to produce the inert hormone angiotensin 1.

Renin