CH. 6 - Microscopic Examination of Urine (Lecture) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH. 6 - Microscopic Examination of Urine (Lecture) Deck (62)
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1

Increases overall visibility of sediment elements being examined using bright field microscopy by changing their refractive index.

Staining

2

The most frequently used stain in urinalysis; consists of crystal violet and safranin O

Sternheimer-Malbin
aka. Sedi-stain (Becton-Dickinson, Parsipanny, N.J.)
aka. KOVA stain (Hycor Biomedical, Inc, Garden Grove, Calif.)

3

A metachromatic stain that provides enhancement of nuclear detail

0.5% solution of toluidine blue

4

A stain that differentiates WBCs and Renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells

Toluidine blue

5

A stain that delineates structure and contrasting colors of the nucleus and cytoplasm

Sternheimer-Malbin

6

A stain that identifies WBCs, epithelial cells, and casts

Sternheimer-Malbin

7

A stain that lyses RBCs and enhances nuclei of WBCs

2% acetic acid

8

A stain that distinguishes RBCs from WBCs, yeast, oil, droplets, and crystals

2% acetic acid

9

Stains triglycerides and neutral fats orange-red;
identifies free fat droplets and lipid-containing cells and casts

Lipid stains: Oil Red O and Sudan III

10

Differentiates gram+ and gram- bacteria; identifies bacterial casts

Gram stain

11

The preferred stain for urinary eosinophils

Hansel stain

12

Consists of methylene blue and eosin Y (stains eosinophilic granules)

Hansel stain

13

Stains hemosiderin granules a blue color

Prussian blue

14

Stains structures containing iron; identifies yellow-brown granules of hemosiderin in cells and casts

Prussian blue

15

Type of microscopy used when using lipid stains

Polarizing microscopy

16

Type of microscopy wherein objects appear dark against a clear background; most frequently used in the clinical laboratory

Bright-Field microscopy

17

The use of _____ aids in the identification of crystals and lipids. Both substances have the ability to rotate the path of the unidirectional polarized light beam to produce characteristic colors in crystals and Maltese cross formation in lipids.

Polarized light

18

A property indicating that the element can refract light in two dimensions at 90 degrees to each other

Birefringement

19

Type of microscopy that provides a three dimensional image showing very fine structural detail by splitting the light ray so that the beams pass through different areas of the specimen.

Interference contrast microscopy

20

Type of microscopy wherein an object appears bright against a dark background but without the diffraction halo associated with phase-contrast microscopy.

Interference contrast microscopy

21

A technique used in the clinical laboratory to enhance the visualization of specimens that cannot be seen easily viewed with a bright-field microscope.

Dark-field microscopy

22

Type of microscopy used for unstained specimens, and, in particular, to identify the spirochete Treponema pallidum

Dark-field microscopy

23

Used to detect bacteria and viruses within cells and tissues through a technique called immunofluorescence

Fluorescence microsopy

24

In the urine, these aapear as smooth, non-nucleated, biconcave disks measuring approximately 7mm in diameter; must be identified using HPO

RBCs

25

RBCs that vary with size, have cellular protrusions, or are fragmented are termed _____. Associated primarily with glomerular bleeding.

Dysmorphic

26

In concentrated (Hypersthenuric) urine, cells shrink due to loss of water and may appear _____ or irregularly shaped

Crenated

27

In dilute (Hyposthenuric) urine, the cells absorb water, swell. and lyse rapidly, releasing their hemoglobin and leaving only the cell membrane. These large empty cells are called

Ghost cells

28

The presence of RBC in the urine is associated with damage to the _____.

Glomerular membrane or vascular injury with the genitourinary tract

29

When macroscopic hematuria is present, what is the appearance of urine?

Urine appears cloudy with a red to brown color

30

Macroscopic hematuria is frequently associated with what diseases?

Advanced glomerular damage
Damage to vascular integrity of the urinary tract caused by trauma, acute inflammation or inflammation, and coagulation dsorders.