Ch 3 - Positioning Terminology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 3 - Positioning Terminology Deck (165)
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1

The science of the structure of the body

Anatomy

2

The study of the function of the body organs

Physiology

3

The detailed study of the body of knowledge relating to the bones of the body

Osteology

4

Imaginary planes that subdivide the body in reference to anatomic position
"Slice" the body in all directions at designated levels
Used in radiographic positioning to center a body part to the IR or CR

Body planes

5

4 fundamental planes

Sagittal
Coronal
Horizontal
Oblique

6

Plane that divides the body into right and left segments, passing vertically from front to back

Sagittal

7

A specific sagittal plane that passes through midline and divides the body into equal right and left halves

Midsagittal plane (MSP)

8

Plane that passes through the body vertically from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior parts

Coronal

9

The specific plane that passes through midline and divides the body into equal anterior and posterior halves

Midcoronal plane (MCP)/midaxillary

10

Plane that passes crosswise through the body or body part at right angles to the longitudinal axis
Positioned at right angle to sagittal and coronal planes
Divides the body into superior and inferior portions

Horizontal
Transverse
Axial
Cross-sectional

11

Plane that passes through a body part at any angle between the previous three planes

Oblique

12

2 special planes

Interiliac
Occlusal

13

Plane that transects the body at the pelvis at the top of the iliac crests (level of L4)

Interiliac

14

Plane formed by the biting surfaces of the upper and lower teeth with jaws closed

Occlusal

15

2 great body cavities

Thoracic
Abdominal

16

6 things the thoracic cavity contains

Pleural membranes
Lungs
Trachea
Esophagus
Pericardium
Heart and great vessels

17

10 things abdominal cavity contains

Peritoneum
Stomach
Liver
Intestines
Gallbladder
Kidneys
Pancreas
Ureters
Spleen
Major blood vessels

18

2 methods abdomen is divided into

Quadrants
Regions

19

2 divisions of the abdomen

Bordered superiorly by diaphragm
Bordered inferiorly by superior pelvic aperture (pelvic inlet)

20

4 quadrants of the abdomen (useful for describing the location of various abdominal organs)

Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
Right lower quadrant (RLQ)
Left upper quadrant (LUQ)
Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

21

3 superior regions of abdomen

Right hypochondrium
Epigastrium
Left hypochondrium

22

3 middle regions of abdomen

Right lateral
Umbilical
Left lateral

23

3 inferior regions of abdomen

Right inguinal
Hypogastrium
Left inguinal

24

The common variations in the shape of the human body
Important in radiography because it determines size, shape, and position of organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Organs change position based on how body is made

Body habitus

25

6 organs affected by body habitus

Heart
Lungs
Diaphragm
Stomach
Colon
Gallbladder

26

4 major types of body habitus

Sthenic
Hyposthenic
Asthenic
Hypersthenic

27

6 bone functions

Attachment for muscles
Mechanical basis for movement
Protection of internal organs
Support frame for body
Storage for calcium, phosphorus, and other salts
Production of red and white blood cells

28

2 main groups in skeletal division

Axial skeleton (80 bones)
Appendicular skeleton (126 bones)

29

Skeleton that supports the head and trunk

Axial

30

Skeleton that provides means for movement

Appendicular

31

Strong, dense outer layer of bone

Compact

32

Inner, less dense layer of bone
Contains a spiculated network called trabeculae (filled with red and yellow marrow)

Spongy

33

Marrow that produces red and white blood cells

Red

34

Marrow that stores fat cells

Yellow

35

Central cavity of long bones
Contains trabeculae filled with yellow marrow
Red marrow found in ends of long bones

Medullary cavity

36

Tough, fibrous connective tissue that covers bone, except at articular ends

Periosteum

37

Lines marrow cavity

Endosteum

38

The development and formation of bones
Begins in the second month of embryonic life

Ossification

39

2 processes of ossification

Intermembranous
Endochondral

40

Process of ossification that forms flat bones

Intermembranous

41

Process of ossification that creates short, irregular, and long bones

Endochondral

42

2 distinct centers of development from which endochondral ossification occurs

Primary
Secondary

43

Ossification that begins before birth and forms long central shaft in long bones

Primary

44

Ossification that occurs after birth when separate bones begin to develop at both ends of long bones

Secondary

45

Ends of long bones

Epiphysis

46

5 classifications of bones by shape

Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Sesamoid

47

Bones found only in limbs
Consist of body and two enlarged articular ends
Examples: femur and humerus

Long

48

Bones that consist mainly of cancellous bone with a thin outer layer of compact bone
Example: carpal bones

Short

49

Bones that consist of two plates of compact bones
Middle layer of cancellous bone called diploë
Examples: sternum and cranium

Flat

50

Bones that are peculiarly shaped
Examples: vertebrae and facial bones

Irregular

51

Bones that are very small and oval
Develop inside and beside tendons
Protect the tendon from excessive wear
Largest is patella

Sesamoid

52

The study of joints/articulations between bones

Arthrology

53

2 classifications of arthrology

Functional
Structural

54

Three subdivisions of functional joints based on mobility of joint

Synarthroses
Amphiarthroses
Diarthroses

55

Synarthroses

Immoveable

56

Amphiarthroses

Slightly moveable

57

Diarthroses

Freely moveable

58

3 distinct groups of structural joints based on connective tissues

Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

59

Joints that do not have a joint cavity
United by various fibrous and connective tissues and ligaments
Strongest joints in the body

Fibrous

60

3 types of fibrous joints

Syndesmosis
Suture
Gomphosis

61

Immoveable or very slightly moveable joints
United by fibrous sheets
Example: inferior tibiofibular joint

Syndesmosis

62

Immoveable joint only in the skull

Suture

63

Immoveable joint only in roots of teeth

Gomphosis

64

Joints that do not have a joint cavity
Virtually immoveable

Cartilaginous

65

2 types of cartilaginous joints

Symphysis
Synchondrosis

66

Slightly moveable joint
Separated by a pad of fibrocartilage
Designed for strength and shock absorbency
Example: pubic symphysis

Symphysis

67

Immovable joint
United by rigid cartilage
Example: epiphyseal plate

Synchondrosis

68

Joints that permit wide range of motion; freely moveable
Complex joints
Enclosed by articular capsule
Many have accessory soft tissues: meniscus and bursae

Synovial

69

6 types of synovial joints

Gliding
Hinge
Pivot
Ellipsoid
Saddle
Ball and socket

70

Simplest synovial joint
Examples: intercarpal and intertarsal joints

Gliding

71

Synovial joint that permits flexion and extension only
Examples: elbow and knee

Hinge

72

Synovial joint that allows rotation around a single axis
Example: atlantoaxial joint (C1-C2 joint)

Pivot

73

Synovial joint that allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction
Example: radiocarpal (wrist) joint

Ellipsoid

74

Synovial joint that allows movement similar to ellipsoid
Difference is in the shape of the articular surfaces
Example: carpometacarpal joint between trapezium and first metacarpal

Saddle

75

Synovial joint that permits widest range of motion
Examples: hip and shoulder

Ball and Socket

76

Extend beyond or project out from the main body of a bone

Processes/projections

77

Hollow or depressed areas in bone

Depressions

78

A break in bone

Fracture

79

Rounded process at an articular end of bone

Condyle

80

Beaklike or crownlike process on bone

Coracoid or coronoid

81

Ridgelike process on bone

Crest

82

Projection above a condyle on bone

Epicondyle

83

Small, smooth-surfaced articular process on bone

Facet

84

Hook-shaped process on bone

Hamulus

85

Expanded end of a long bone

Head

86

Hornlike process on bone

Horn

87

Linear elevation on bone; not as prominent as a crest

Line

88

Club-shaped process on bone

Malleolus

89

Projecting prominence on bone

Protuberance

90

Sharp process on bone

Spine

91

Long, pointed process on bone

Styloid

92

Either of the two large, rounded, and elevated processes of the proximal femur

Trochanter

93

Small, rounded, and elevated process on bone

Tubercle

94

Large, rounded, and elevated process

Tuberosity

95

8 depressions of bone

Fissure
Foramen
Fossa
Groove
Meatus
Notch
Sinus
Sulcus

96

Cleft or deep groove in bone

Fissure

97

Hole in a bone for transmission of vessels and nerves

Foramen

98

Pit, fovea, or hollow space in bone

Fossa

99

Shallow linear channel in bone

Groove

100

Tubelike passageway in bone

Meatus

101

Indentation in the border of a bone

Notch

102

Recess, groove, cavity, or hollow space in bone

Sinus

103

Furrow or trench in bone

Sulcus

104

4 types of fractures

Closed
Open
Nondisplaced
Displaced

105

8 classifications of fractures (many fractures fall into more than one category)

Compression
Transverse
Compound (open)
Spiral/oblique
Simple
Comminuted
Greenstick
Impacted

106

Forward or front part of the body or of a part

Anterior (ventral)

107

Back part of body or part

Posterior (dorsal)

108

Parts away from the head of the body toward the feet

Caudad

109

Parts toward the head

Cephalad

110

Nearer the head or situated above


Superior

111

Nearer the feet or situated below

Inferior

112

Mid area or main part of an organ

Central

113

At or near the surface, edge, or outside of another body part

Peripheral

114

Toward the median plane of the body or toward the middle of a body part

Medial

115

Away from the median plane or away from the middle of a part

Lateral

116

Near the skin or surface

Superficial

117

Far from the surface

Deep

118

Farthest from the point of attachment or origin

Distal

119

Nearer to the point of attachment or origin

Proximal

120

Outside the body or part

External

121

Inside the body or part

Internal

122

The wall or lining of a body cavity

Parietal

123

The covering of an organ

Visceral

124

Parts on the same side of the body

Ipsilateral

125

Parts on the opposite side of the body

Contralateral

126

Palm of the hand

Palmar

127

Sole of the foot

Plantar

128

Anterior, or top, of the foot or the back of the hand

Dorsum

129

The path of the CR as it exits the x-ray tube, passing through the patient to the IR
Identified by the entrance and exit points of the body
Ex: PA = entering posterior and exiting anterior

Projection

130

Overall posture of the patient or general body position
Also refers to the specific placement of the body or part in relation to the table or IR

Position

131

Describes the body part as seen by the IR
Exact opposite of projection, the preferred term in the United States

View

132

Refers to a specific radiographic projection developed by an individual

Method

133

CR enters the anterior surface and exits the posterior

AP

134

CR enters the posterior surface and exits the anterior

PA

135

Longitudinal angle of the CR of 10 degrees or more

Axial

136

CR directed along the outer margin of a curved body surface

Tangential

137

CR enters one side of the body, passing transversely along the coronal plane

Lateral

138

CR enters from side angle
Entrance and exit surfaces still specified (e.g., AP)

Oblique

139

Erect or vertical

Upright

140

Upright, but sitting on a stool

Seated

141

Lying down in any position

Recumbent

142

Lying on the back

Supine

143

Lying face down

Prone

144

Supine with the head lower than the feet

Trendelenburg’s position

145

Supine with the head elevated

Fowler’s position

146

Recumbent with patient lying on left anterior side with left leg extended and right knee and thigh partially flexed

Sims’ position

147

Supine with knees and hips flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports

Lithotomy position

148

Named according to the side of the patient that is placed closer to the IR

Lateral position

149

Body is rotated so that the coronal plane is not parallel with the table or IR
Angle of rotation is specific for anatomy of interest
Named according to side and surface of body closer to table or IR
Abbreviations: RPO, LPO, RAO, and LAO

Oblique

150

Recumbent position with a horizontal CR
Named according to the body surface on which the patient is lying

Decubitus position

151

Upright position in which the patient is leaning backward

Lordotic position

152

Movement of a part away from the central axis of the
body

Abduct/abduction

153

Movement of a part toward the central axis of the body

Adduct/adduction

154

Straightening of a joint

Extension

155

Bending of a joint

Flexion

156

Forced or excessive extension

Hyperextension

157

Forced overflexion

Hyperflexion

158

Outward turning of the foot at the ankle

Evert/eversion

159

Inward turning of the foot at the ankle

Invert/inversion

160

Rotation of forearm so that the palm is down

Pronate/pronation

161

Rotation of forearm so that the palm is up

Supinate/supination

162

Turning of the body or part around its axis either medial (toward midline) or lateral (away from midline)

Rotate/rotation

163

Circular movement of a limb

Circumduction

164

Tipping or slanting a body part slightly

Tilt

165

A turning away from the regular or standard course

Deviation