Patella, femur, hip and pelvis Flashcards Preview

RAD 112: Radiographic Anatomy & Positioning > Patella, femur, hip and pelvis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Patella, femur, hip and pelvis Deck (60)
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1

Large, rounded eminence on the superior end of the femur that articulates with the acetabulum

Head

2

Constricted portion just inferior from the head of the femur

Neck

3

Two large eminences on the distal end of the femur that articulate with the tibia

Condyles

4

Shallow, triangular area on the anterior surface between the condyles of the femur

Patellar surface

5

Large, prominent process superior and lateral on the shaft of the femur

Greater trochanter

6

Shallow, triangular area on the anterior surface between the condyles of the posterior, distal femur

Intercondylar fossa

7

Cushions between tibia and femur

Menisci

8

Largest bone of lower limb

Femur

9

How should the femoral neck appear in the AP projection of the proximal femur

In profile

10

How should the lesser trochanter appear in the AP projection of the proximal femur?

Shouldn't be seen beyond the medial border of the femur or only a very small portion seen on the proximal femur

11

What portion of an orthopedic appliance should be demonstrated in the AP projection of the femur?

Any in its entirety?

12

True of false: gonadal shielding shouldn't be used because it may superimpose the femoral head

False

13

How should the pelvis be positioned to demonstrate the lateral proximal femur?

From true lateral, the pelvis should be rolled posteriorly about 10-15 degrees

14

How should the pelvis be positioned to demonstrate the lateral distal femur?

True lateral

15

Concerning IR placement/collimated field location, to what level on the patient should the upper border of an IR or collimated field be placed when demonstrating the lateral proximal femur?

At the level of the ASIS

16

Concerning IR placement/collimated field location, to what level on the patient should the lower border of an IR or collimated field be placed when demonstrating the lateral distal femur?

2 inches beyond the knee

17

Concerning the placement of the unaffected (uppermost) limb, where should it be placed when demonstrating the lateral proximal femur?

Posteriorly

18

Concerning the placement of the unaffected (uppermost) limb, where should it be placed when demonstrating the lateral distal femur?

In front of the affected limb

19

When demonstrating the lateral distal femur and including the knee, how many degrees should the knee be flexed?

About 45 degrees

20

Which term refers to the inferior tip of the patella?

Apex

21

Which part of the patella is the base?

Superior border

22

Where on the femur is the lesser trochanter located?

Medial and posterior

23

Where is the fovea capitis located?

Proximal femur

24

Which positioning maneuver should be performed to place the femoral neck in profile for the AP projection of the femur?

Rotate the lower limb medially 10-15 degrees

25

Which positioning maneuver should be performed to prevent the femoral neck from appearing foreshortened in the AP projection of the femur?

Rotate the lower limb medially 10 to 15 degrees

26

For the AP projection of the femur on typical adults, what should be done to ensure that both joints of the femur are demonstrated?

Perform a second exposure with another IR

27

For the lateral projection of the femur, how should the pelvis be positioned to demonstrate only the knee joint with the distal femoral shaft?

True lateral

28

Posterior pelvic articulations

Sacroiliac

29

2 other names for the hip bone

Innominate
Os coxae

30

Projects from the pubic bone

Ramus

31

Hip socket formed by the fusion of three bones

Acetabulum

32

Forms posterior aspect of pelvis

Sacrum

33

Found above the acetabulum
Part of the hip bone that forms the broad, curved portion called the ala

Ilium

34

Articulates with the sacrum

Coccyx

35

Has a body and two rami

Pubis

36

Winglike portion of ilium

Ala

37

The structure of the body that serves as a base for the trunk and as a girdle for the attachment of the lower limbs

Pelvis

38

4 bones that form the pelvis

2 hip bones
Sacrum
Coccyx

39

Which two prominent structures found on the ilium are frequently used as radiographic positioning reference points?

Iliac crest and ASIS

40

ASIS

Anterior superior iliac spine

41

Which bone/portion of the hip bone consists of a body and two rami?

Pubis

42

Which bone/portion of the hip bone extends inferiorly from the acetabulum and joins with the inferior ramus of the pubic bone

Ischium

43

What bones of the hip bone form the obturator foramen?

By posterior union, the rami of the pubis and ischium

44

2 structures that form the posterior part of the pelvis

Sacrum
Coccyx

45

2 parts a pelvis is divided into by the brim of the pelvis

Greater (false) pelvis
Lesser (true) pelvis

46

The region between the inlet and the outlet of the true pelvis

Pelvic cavity

47

Which gender (male or female) has a pelvis that is broader and shallower with a larger and more rounded outlet?

Female

48

2 large processe located at the proximal end of the femur

Greater trochanter
Lesser trochanter

49

2 areas of the proximal femur that are common sites for fractures in elderly patients

Femoral neck
Intertrochanteric crest

50

In a typical adult, in which direction (anterior or posterior) does the femoral neck project away from the long axis of the femur?

Anterior

51

What are the major articulations of the pelvis by name and or abbreviation and their quantity?

1 pubic symphysis
2 hip joints
2 SI joints

52

2 palpable bony points of localization for the hip joint

ASIS
Superior margin of pubic symphysis

53

How are the ASIS and superior margin of pubic symphysis used to locate the femoral neck?

Visualize line between ASIS and pubic symphysis
At midpoint extend a second line perpendicular and inferolaterally toward the femur
The long axis of the femoral neck lies parallel with the second line

54

True or false: the greater sciatic notch is located on the anterior border of ilium

False

55

True or false: in the seated position, the weight of the body rests on two ischial tuberosities

True

56

True or false: the highest point of the greater trochanter is in the same transverse plane as the midpoint of the hip joint.

True

57

How should the patient's lower limbs be positioned for the AP projection of the pelvis and proximal femora and why?

Rotated medially 15-20 degrees to place the femoral necks parallel with the IR

58

How is rotation of the pelvis detected in the AP projection of the pelvis and proximal femora?

The alae of the ilia are asymmetrical if the pelvis is rotated

59

Which plane of the body should be positioned on the midline of the table and grid for the AP projection of the pelvis and proximal femora?

Midsagittal

60

With reference to the patient, where should the IR be centered for the AP projection of the pelvis and proximal femora?

At the level of the soft tissue depression just above the palpable prominence of the greater trochanter (about 1.5 in) which is also midway between the ASIS and pubic symphysis
About 2 in inferior to the ASIS and 2 inches superior to the pubic symphysis