Ch. 4-8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 4-8 Deck (47)
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1

Sensation

process by which senses pick up stimuli in the enviroment and transmit them to the brain

2

Perception

process by which sensory information is organized and interpreted in the brain to give it meaning

3

Kinesthetic

sense of body position, orientation and movement

4

Vestibular

Sense of balance and movement (inner ear)

5

Sensory receptors

specialized cells in the sense organs that detect and respond to one type of sensory stimuli

6

What are some of the sensory stimuli that sensory receptors respond too

light, sound, waves, odors and convert neural impluses

7

Transduction

process of the sensory receptors convert the sensory stimulation into neural impuleses

8

Cornea

tough, transparent protective layer covering the front surface of the eyeball. directs lights rays through the pupil

9

Retina

layer of tissue located on the inner surface of the eyeball contains sensory receptors for vision

10

Rods

light sensitive, detect light and dark, insensitive to red and take 20-30 mins to adjust to darkness

11

Cones

Located in the fovea, less light sensitive, detect colors and detail vision

12

Fovea

small area at center of retina provides clearest and sharpest area of vision. contains no rods but 30,000 cones

13

Blind Spot

each retina area where there are no rods or cones because of the retinal neuron cells are extending through the retinal wall

14

Optic Nerve

The nerve that carries visual information from the retina to the brain

15

Optic Chiasm

the point where two optic nerves come together and some of the nerve fibers cross the opposite side of the brain

16

Bottom Up processing

bits of data are combined until a complete perception is formed

17

Top Down processing

Application of previous experience and knowledge to recognize the whole perception

18

Circadian Rhythms

Changes in energy level, mood and efficiency through the day 24 hour rhythm

19

What Part of the brain control the Circadian Rhythm

Controlled by the Hypothalamus

20

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Tiny structure in the brain hypothalamus that controls timing of circadian rhythms the biological clock

21

What are the five stages of Sleep

Stage 1,2,3,4, REM sleep

22

REM sleep

Rapid Eye Movement, paralysis of large muscles increased brain activity, and vivd dreams

23

Stage 1

Very light, Alpha waves are replaced with theta waves

24

Stage 2

Sleep deeper, clustered spindle areas in EEG

25

Stage 3

Spindles disappear, delta waves appear (minor lifts and large lifts like a mountain)

26

Stage 4

up and down continuous wave lengths

27

Sleep Apnea

Dangerous condition where the person stops breathing while asleep

28

Nacrolepsy

Brain abnormality, person suddenly falls into REM sleep without warning

29

Sleep Talking

makes no sense but sometimes speaks or shouts intelligible phrases

30

Nightmares

occur in REM sleep, frequent if person is under emotional stress and in children

31

Activation Synthesis Theory

dreams are the by product of cortex attempt to make sense of the random firing of neurons during REM sleep

32

Insomnia

impairment in functioning due to inability to sleep, psychological problems.

33

Learning

relatively permanent change in behavior occurs as a result in experience

34

What are the three main types of learning and who used them

Classical conditioning( Pavlov and Watson), Operant Conditioning( BF Skinner), Observational Learning(Albert Bandura)

35

Classical Conditioning

Process by which behaviors are learned through assciations

36

Dreams

Emotional parts of the brain are still active such as visual cortex are active during REM sleep

37

Unconditioned Response

unlearned response to stimulus

38

Neutral Stimulus

does not naturally elicit a response

39

Conditioned Response

learned response to the neutral stimulus

40

Conditioned stimulus

any stimulus that will after association with an unconditioned stimulus cause a conditioned response when present

41

Extinction

CR is weakened by presenting the CS without the US

42

Spontaneous Recovery

CR recurs a time delay and without additional learning

43

Shaping

rewarding successively closer approximations of desired behavior. (useful for teaching new behavior)

44

Partial Reinforcement

reinforcing a behavior some but not all of the time

45

Positive Punishment

weakens a response by presenting an aversive stimulus

46

Negative Punishment

weakens response by removing an enjoyable stimulus

47

Variable ratio schedule

highest response, rewards are given randomly around an average number of responses