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Psychology 100 > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (63)
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1

Encoding

process by which information gets into memory storage

2

Selective

Attending to certain stimuli while ignoring other stimuli

3

Divided

Attending to several stimuli at the same time

4

Sustained

Ability to maintain attention to a stimulus for a prolonged period of time

5

Storage

How information is retained and represented over time in memory

6

3 Memory Storage Systems

Sensory Memory, Short Term Memory, Long Term Memory

7

What was the Atkinson Shiffrin Model of Memory Storage

The three stages of memory

8

Explicit Memory (Declarative Memory)

Types of memory elicited through the conscious retrieval of recollection in response to direct questions

9

Implicit Memory (Non-Declarative Memory)

non-conscious recollection of prior experience that is revealed indirectly by its effects on performance

10

Sensory Memory

Visual sensory memory:iconic memory
Auditory Sensory memory:echoic memory

11

Iconic Memory

a fleeting sensory memory for visual images that lasts only a fraction of a second

12

Short Term Memory

Limited capacity, duration of 20-30 secs due to limited space and interference

13

Long Term Memory

Duration can last potential decades, and large capacity

14

Memory

The retention of information over time

15

Episodic Memory

retention of persona information about life's events, autobiographical

16

Semantic Memory

General Knowledge about facts

17

Two parts of Explicit Memory

Episodic and Semantic Memory

18

Two parts of Implicit Memory

Procedural memory and Priming

19

Procedural Memory

Memory for skills

20

Priming

Activation of information that people already have in storage that is below conscious awareness

21

Retrieval

Process by which information that was retained in memory is taken out of storage

22

Development

Pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life cycle

23

The course of prenatal development

The Germinal Period, The embryonic period, fetal period

24

Germinal Period

Creation of zygote, continued cell division and attachment of zygote to uterine wall

25

How long is the Germinal Period

Conception - day 14

26

Embryonic Period

major organs develop, most rapid changes occur in this stage

27

How long is the Embryonic Period

From 2-8 weeks

28

Fetal Period

Growth and finishing phase, rapid increase in size

29

How long is the Fetal Period

Months 2-9

30

Teratogens

broad range of substances and conditions that may result in defects of the fetus

31

Infant Reflexes

Sucking, rooting, grasping, stepping, startle reflex

32

Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development

Children actively construct their knowledge of the world through their direct interactions with physical world

33

Piaget's stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor (0-2), Preoperational (2-7), Concrete Operational (7-11), Formal Operational (11-14)

34

Sensorimotor Stage

(0-2), Thought- coordination of sensations with motor action.
Key development is object permanence

35

Object permance

understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of sight

36

Preoperational Stage

2-7 years, Mental representation and symbolic thinking, Egocentrism, thought limiations

37

Egocentrism

Cannot differentiate own perspective from that of others

38

Concrete Operational Stage

7-11 years, Classification and conservation

39

Formal Operational Stage

11-15 years, last through adulthood, abstract and idealistic thought, hypothetical deductive reasoning

40

Infant Attachment

close emotional bond between caregiver and infant, during first year of life, important foundation for subsequent development

41

Securely Attached Infants

(70%), use their mothers as a secure base by which they explore. when mothers leave they become upset

42

Insecure- Avoidant Infants

(15%), remain independent throughout the strange situation. do not become upset when mother leaves

43

Insecure-Resistant Infants

(15%), little exploration, clingy and preoccupied with mother. upset when mother leaves and not soothed when she returns

44

Eriksons Psychosocial Development

Proposed 8 stages of Psychosocial development, with a positive resolution of each stage

45

What are the 8 stages of Eriksons Psychosocial Development

Childhood,
trust vs mistrust,
autonomy vs shame,
Intitative vs guilt,
industry vs inferiority,
adolescence,
identity vs indentity confusion
adulthood
intimacy vs isolation
generativity vs stagnation
intergrity vs despair

46

Trusting Infants

(positive resolution)Trust develops when basic needs are consistently met

47

Mistrusting infants

(negative resolution) Mistrust develops when basic needs are not consistently met

48

What are the 6 basic emotions

Fear
Anger
Disgust
Surprise
Happiness/Joy
Sadness/distress

49

Affect

feeling/emotion

50

Body

Physiological reaction

51

Cognition

Appraisal

52

5 theories of Emotion

James Lange Theory
Cannon Bard Theory
Schacter Singer Theory
Lazarus Theory
Facial Feedback Hypothesis

53

James Lange Theory

Physiological arousal occurs before emotion
B=A

54

Singer-Schacter Two Factor Theory

Bodily changes and a cognitive label are needed to completely experience an emotion
B&C=A

55

Lazarus Theory

cognitive occurs first and then leads to the emotional response
A=C=B

56

Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Movements of the facial muscles produce or intensify emotional reactions

57

Cannon Bard Theory

Stimulus causes the arousal and the emotion stimultanously
A=stimulus=B

58

Autonomy

(positive resolution) develops when toddlers gains control over own body

59

Shame and doubt

(negative resolution) develops when toddler can not control body

60

Industry

(positive resolution) develops by mastering knowledge and intellectual skills, build, etc in a school setting

61

Inferiority

(negative resolution) develops when child feels that they can not do what other children are doing

62

Identity formation

(positive resolution) develops by figuring out who you are and where you are going in life

63

Identity Confusion

(negative resolution) develops when we don't select an identity