Flashcards in ch 4 (d,e) Deck (32):
who has better self esteem: early or late maturing boys ?
age of 18-25; people in Western, industrialized nations transition to more adult roles and responsibilities
what happens when adults support adolescents autonomy ?
kiddos display stronger relationship skills as they enter adulthood
collectivities values of loyalty, support, and interdependence (adolescent daughters less likely to view parents having strict control over them)
cross-sex friendship: when does it start?
increases at the age of 12 for western cultures
are relationships and cross sex friendships differentiated by race?
no, p much the same as long as included in Western cultures; with the exception of Asian people
how are same sex relationships reported in teen years
girls (3.5%) are more likely to report than boys (2.2)
what do women use online stuff for more than men?
what do men talk more about online than women do?
society and abstract problems
who scores them selves as having better communal self-views ?
who scores themselves better on agentic self views? (decisive, independent, competitive)
Jean Twenge noticed what from 73-94?
gendered self views decreased
what is the primary cause for gendered self views decreasing
Women see themsleves as more agentic, men only see themselves as slightly more communal
What does Serge Guimond propose?
that people learn about their standing on traits by comparing themselves to different groups of people
How does Guimond's theory explain both gender equal countries and non equal countries
countries w greater gender equality are likely ot learn about their own traits by peers of all sexes; gender divided countries are more likely ot only analyze their own sex
what does Guimond's theory propose about how people rate themsleves ?
people in equal cultures compare themselves to both men and women; so theres a larger gap. people in non equal cultures compare themselves to only their sex; so theres a lesser gap.
How are agentic women perceived?
they are okay to be leaders as long as they have children
societal norm dictating that women should have children; women without kids are stereotyped as lacking in warmth, contempt, and moral outrage
what is another expectation of women?
that they spend time, money, and effort making themselves look good
What is ideal manhood in psych terms?
What are traits of masculinity
competition, agression, success, toughness, avoidance of femm
what is a result of hegemonic masculinity
because its such an impossible bar to set, men often feel insecure about their masculinity
Precarious manhood hypothesis:
cross-cultural tendency to define manhood as social status, and that its easy to lose. Requires continual validation by public action and risk taking
how is womanhood perceived differently
womanhood is based around biological changes-- not something that can be lost by social construct
how do psychological factors play on loss of manhood
unemployed dudes think people will view them as less of a man, and results in higher rates of depression and anxiety; gender status loss is linked to mens mental health
De gendering theory
gender becomes less of a central aspect as people grow older
is de gendering backed up?
nah, two studies show no de gendering over lifetime and actually one showed an increase
Pros of being a woman:
-richer social network
-better at practical home making skills; women tend to care for themsleves better
-rely less on spouse
-well being less likely to be dependent on spouse
cons of being a man
-rely on spouse more
-cant do chores as well--guys who live alone report more stress and despondency
double standard of aging
women's social value decreases as they age, while men increase as they gain more experience and social status
what is freedom in old age defined as for men ? for women?
men: freedom from breadwinning stage
women: freedom from child raising, other household responsibilities