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Flashcards in exam 1 Review:) Deck (96):
1

STUDY: Langlois and Down-- what is the experiment?

father's reacted negatively to sons doing femm things/playing with femm toys

2

STUDY: Langlois and down--what did this study show?

parents reinforced sex-typical play

3

STUDY: Mitchell Baker & Jackson

tested mono and di twins

4

STUDY: Mitchell Baker and Jackson--what did it show?

that 20% heritability by genes

5

STUDY: MacCoby and Jacklin--what is the experiment

same sex modeling is unlikely to account for differences in behavior

6

STUDY: Maccoby and Jacklin--what idd it show?

shows MIX of cognitive and social learning

7

Implicit Association test--what is it?

tested trans/cis kids and recorded preferences and associations

8

Implicit Association Test--what it show

Trans/Cis kids are V similar

9

whats the weird thing about the Greater Male Variability Hypothesis?

Men are over represented in both the high and low spectrums of the distribution

10

Explain the main difference in ideas about how gender is formed according to Social Learning Theory and Cognitive Theory:

SL: "i was rewarded for being a boy, so I MUST be a boy!"
Cognitive: "I am a boy, so I MUST do boy things!"

11

what is a prejudice

the feelings associated with a stereotype (i.e, all men are aggressive; therefore I hate all men)

12

what two thingies help girls stay confident in them sleves during puberty?

STEM things and Sports

13

Which Gender Development theory is Sex-Typing associated with?

Social Learning

14

What is sex-typing?

the processes in which people acquire gendered behaviors

15

what kinda households do more egalitarian kiddos come from?

kids with one parent

16

Three steps of cognitive development theory:

-Gender Identity: understanding sex by being able to label one's self and others (2-3)
-Gender Stability: understanding that sex is constant across time (4-5)
-Gender Constancy: sex is largely fixed, ie, doesn't change bc of clothes or haircut (6-7)

17

What is the Gender Socialization Model:

kids forming three cognitive associations about gender

18

three chunks of gender Socialization Model:

-gender identity: connect the self to a sex group
-gender stereotype: connect sex groups to traits
-gendered self-view: those that connect the self to traits

19

Criticism of SL:

-children are passive recipients of gender roles by environmental influence
-SL ignore's what kids think about gender

20

Criticism of Cog:

-de-emphasizes role of the outside world
-de-emphasizes culture

21

The two theories of sex differentiation

Evolutionary and BioSocial Constructionist

22

Evolutionary explanation

EEA (Environment of Evolutionary Adaptivness)
-psych conditions are inherited the same as physical

23

the goal of life according to Evolutionary psych

pass on genes (survive and reproduce)

24

BioSocial Construct theory

gender happens by biological differences; gender is an easy way to divide labor

25

CAIS (complete androgen insensitivity Syndrome)

intersex condition; XY is resistent to Andringens and has undeveloped testes and female external genitalia

26

PAIS

intersex condition; XY is partially resistant to androgens and may present with male or female or ambiguous genitalia

27

CAH ( Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia)

Intersex condition; XX have overactive adrenal gland, female anatomy with male genitals

28

Turner's syndrome

XO, infertile, assigned female at birth, underdeveloped sex organs and health issues

29

Triple X

XXX peeps assigned female at birth, female sex organs, increased risk of learning disabilities, tall, and fertile

30

Klinefelter's Syndrome

intersex condition; XXY, assigned male, infertile, small testes and enlarged breasts, increased risk of learning disabilities

31

Jacob's

XYY, assigned male, fertile, tall, thin, severe acne, high testosterone, increased risk for learning disabilities

32

Maximalist

emphasizes sex n gender DIFFERENCES

33

minimalist

emphasizes sex and gender SIMILARITIES

34

experimental control

all variables except the independent variable are held constant

35

ex post facto design

quantitative study design that compares groups of people to determine if they differ on some participant variables of interest

36

partipant varible

naturally occurring features of participants that are measured instead of manipulated

37

Quasi

quantitative study design that assesses the impact of an independent variable on the association between an independent or participant variable and a dependent variable, i.e. interaction effects

38

Interaction effect

when the effect of one variable on another is contingent on a third variable

39

focus group

qualitative study design that involves interviews conducted in a group format, guided by a moderator

40

mixed methods

study designs that capitalize on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative method approaches

41

meta-anaylsis

a quantitative technique for analyzing results across studies

42

d stat

a common measure of effect size which quantifies the difference between two group means

43

effect size

a measure of the magnitude and direction of a difference between groups or the strength of the relationship between variables

44

within group variance

reflects how spread out the values are among people within the same group

45

post positivism

a framework that views empirical investigations as a useful , though inherently flawed, method for acquiring knowledge

46

social constructivism

a framework that views knowledge as a subjective, actively-constructed representation of reality

47

Essentialism

Essentialism
the view that human differences arise from essential, inherent qualities within individuals

48

Gene by enviro interaction

when a genetic tendency only emerges under certain environmental conditions, or when an environment shapes traits only for individuals with a particular genetic makeup

49

passive
gene by enviro

the idea that parents can create a certain rearing environment that cannot be separated from their own, or their child's, genetic makeup

50

How does direct learning work?

rewards and punishments

51

how does indirect learning work?

observation and imitation

52

what could genes for play as a child also code for?

sexual orientation

53

emerging adulthood

age of 18-25; people in Western, industrialized nations transition to more adult roles and responsibilities

54

what happens when adults support adolescents autonomy

kiddos display stronger relationship skills as they enter adulthood

55

are relationships and cross sex friendships differentiated by race?

no, p much the same as long as included in Western cultures; with the exception of Asian people

56

Jean Twenge noticed what from 73-94?

gendered self views decreased (as in agent and communal)

57

what is the primary cause for gendered self views decreasing

Women see themsleves as more agentic, men only see themselves as slightly more communal

58

How does Guimond's theory explain both gender equal countries and non equal countries

countries w greater gender equality are likely ot learn about their own traits by peers of all sexes; gender divided countries are more likely ot only analyze their own sex

59

Motherhood mandate

societal norm dictating that women should have children; women without kids are stereotyped as lacking in warmth, contempt, and moral outrage

60

What is ideal manhood in psych terms?

hegemonic masculinity

61

what is a result of hegemonic masculinity

because its such an impossible bar to set, men often feel insecure about their masculinity

62

Precarious manhood hypothesis:

cross-cultural tendency to define manhood as social status, and that its easy to lose. Requires continual validation by public action and risk taking

63

De gendering theory

gender becomes less of a central aspect as people grow older

64

is de gendering backed up?

nah, two studies show no de gendering over lifetime and actually one showed an increase

65

double standard of aging

men: freedom from breadwinning stage
women: freedom from child raising, other household responsibilities

66

what happens to girls who exhibit puberty at an earlier age than peers?

Higher risk for: body image problems, eating disorders, depression, risky behavior, and sexual activity

67

Evocative

the concept that an individual's genetic tendency can evoke specific treatment from others

68

Active

the concept that an individual's genetic tendency can cause them to choose certain environments

69

Differences or Disorders of Sex Development

the medical term for intersex conditions, encompassing chromosomal, hormonal, and other factors

70

John money

the physician who promoted the Optimal Sex Policy, advocating for early socialization and reconstructive surgery for intersex children

71

heritability estimate

a statistic that specifies the proportion of total population variance in a given trait that is due to genetic differences

72

Gender Confirmation Procedures

surgeries, hormone treatments, and psychotherapy that bring the physical body of an individual more in-line with their gender identity

73

Sex selection

the process by which heritable features increase or decrease chances of reproduction (passing on genes)

74

intersexual selection

possessing a feature that makes an individual more or less competitive than others of the same sex in terms of finding a mate

75

inter

possessing a feature that makes an individual more or less attractive to potential mates

76

Parent-child Interactions

processes by which parents and children mutually influence each other in the development of the child's gender identity

77

gender schematic processing

people are more likely to notice gender and use it to understand and organize their world

78

in-group bias

preference for one's own sex or gender group over others

79

Gender Intensification Hypothesis

idea that gender socialization pressures increase during adolescence and young adulthood as mean and women prepare for adult social role

80

dualism

the distinction between the physical body/brain and conciousness/the mind

81

effect size for verbal ability

Small, in favor of females

82

effect size for vocabulary

Close to zero

83

effect size for verbal fluency

Small/moderate, in favor of females

84

effect size for reading

Variable, in favor of females

85

effect size for writing

Moderate, in favor of females

86

effect size for verbal reasoning

Small, in favor of males

87

effect size for quantitative abilities

0

88

effect size for computation

Small, in favor of females

89

effect size for understanding math concepts

close to 0

90

effect size for complex problem solving

Small/close-to-zero, in favor of males

91

effect size for visual-spatial reasoning

Moderate, in favor of males

92


effect size for mental rotation

Moderate/large, in favor of males

93

effect size for spatial perception

Moderate, in favor of males

94

effect size for spatial visualization

Small, in favor of males

95

effect size for spatial location memory

Small, in favor of females

96

Reflexivity

recognition that the biases of researchers affect the design, findings, and interpretations of any study