Chapter 4 (a-c) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 (a-c) Deck (47):
1

two theories of gender development

social leanring, cognitive

2

Social Learning Theories

social factors cause kids to develop gender

3

Where did SLT come from?

Behaviorists

4

How does direct learning work?

Rewards and punishments

5

how does indirect learning work?

observation and imitation

6

What is Cognitive Theory?

growth of cognitive abilities develop gender

7

what is sex-typing

process that people acquire gendered behaviors

8

Are girls or boys more often allowed to participate in cross sex behavior?

girls

9

how do parents predict their boy babies?

stronger, more agile

10

what parents are the least tolerant of what behavior ?

fathers are less tolerant of boys participating in cross sex behaviors

11

what is the langolis and downs experiment ?

kids do sex typical and cross sex play, and parents reinforce sex-typical play

12

what are ways people say heck girls?

-abort babies like in china
-boys receive better treatment even in times of financial distress

13

what does a high rate of abortion/leaving infant girls do to populations?

skewed sex ratios

14

do kids raised by gay parents have issues with identity more so than kids raised by straight parents?

nah. its the same for psychological conditions across the board.

15

type of parent-child interaction

child temperament can influence how a parent treats them

16

what kinda kids have the least traditional sex-typical behavior?

kids w cross-sex siblings

17

do kids have preferred gender groups?

yes; kids often have segregated friend groups by sex, and they choose it to be that way (not forced)

18

what emotion is amplified by girls hanging w girls?

increased sadness

19

what emotion is amplified by boys hanging w boys?

anger

20

what do segregated groups of kids by sex teach people?

peers teach one another sex-typical ways to express emotion (sadness and anger)

21

what is the biggest media influence for kids?

TV

22

how are boy characters in media portrayed?

as strong, independent, leaders.

23

how are girls portrayed in media?

sexualized

24

preferential looking

showing infants things and recording the time they spend looking at said thing .

25

how old do homies make sex-typical distinctions ?

3-8 months

26

is there a genetic component with peeps playing with sex-typical toys, or is it all social? how do we know?

yes; we studied monkeys and saw a gender pattern

27

percentage of time children spend playing with atypical toys

5%

28

percentage of time children spend playing with sex-stypical toys

20%

29

percentage of time children spend playing with gender neutral toys

75%

30

What is cognitive development theory?

children understanding gender in three main stages of processing

31

gender identity

ability ot label oneself and others by sex

32

typical gender identity age

2-3

33

gender stability

understanding that sex is constant across time

34

gender stability age

4-5

35

gender consistancy

sex is largely fixed; does not change from superficial features such as a hair cut or makeup

36

gender consistency age

6-7

37

Gender schema theory

network of info about gender guide how people interpret/process/remember info

38

gender aschematic

dont use gender as a dimension for interpreting the world

39

developmental intergroup theory

how gender stereotypes are formed in children

40

gender socialization model

kids form 3 cognitive associations about gender

41

gendered self views

part of GSM; connect self to traits by sex

42

criticism of SL

children are considered "passive recipients" of environmental influences and ignore how kids think about gender

43

criticism of cognitive

de-emphasizing the role of the world (especially culture)

44

gender non-conformity

trans/cross sex play/binary

45

is non conformity genetic?

moderately, found biological factors

46

what could genes for play as a child also code for?

sexual orientation

47

do cis and trans kids have different preferences?

no. In ages 5-12, trans kids are the same as far as cis kids of the same age