Flashcards in Chapter 4 (a-c) Deck (47):
two theories of gender development
social leanring, cognitive
Social Learning Theories
social factors cause kids to develop gender
Where did SLT come from?
How does direct learning work?
Rewards and punishments
how does indirect learning work?
observation and imitation
What is Cognitive Theory?
growth of cognitive abilities develop gender
what is sex-typing
process that people acquire gendered behaviors
Are girls or boys more often allowed to participate in cross sex behavior?
how do parents predict their boy babies?
stronger, more agile
what parents are the least tolerant of what behavior ?
fathers are less tolerant of boys participating in cross sex behaviors
what is the langolis and downs experiment ?
kids do sex typical and cross sex play, and parents reinforce sex-typical play
what are ways people say heck girls?
-abort babies like in china
-boys receive better treatment even in times of financial distress
what does a high rate of abortion/leaving infant girls do to populations?
skewed sex ratios
do kids raised by gay parents have issues with identity more so than kids raised by straight parents?
nah. its the same for psychological conditions across the board.
type of parent-child interaction
child temperament can influence how a parent treats them
what kinda kids have the least traditional sex-typical behavior?
kids w cross-sex siblings
do kids have preferred gender groups?
yes; kids often have segregated friend groups by sex, and they choose it to be that way (not forced)
what emotion is amplified by girls hanging w girls?
what emotion is amplified by boys hanging w boys?
what do segregated groups of kids by sex teach people?
peers teach one another sex-typical ways to express emotion (sadness and anger)
what is the biggest media influence for kids?
how are boy characters in media portrayed?
as strong, independent, leaders.
how are girls portrayed in media?
showing infants things and recording the time they spend looking at said thing .
how old do homies make sex-typical distinctions ?
is there a genetic component with peeps playing with sex-typical toys, or is it all social? how do we know?
yes; we studied monkeys and saw a gender pattern
percentage of time children spend playing with atypical toys
percentage of time children spend playing with sex-stypical toys
percentage of time children spend playing with gender neutral toys
What is cognitive development theory?
children understanding gender in three main stages of processing
ability ot label oneself and others by sex
typical gender identity age
understanding that sex is constant across time
gender stability age
sex is largely fixed; does not change from superficial features such as a hair cut or makeup
gender consistency age
Gender schema theory
network of info about gender guide how people interpret/process/remember info
dont use gender as a dimension for interpreting the world
developmental intergroup theory
how gender stereotypes are formed in children
gender socialization model
kids form 3 cognitive associations about gender
gendered self views
part of GSM; connect self to traits by sex
criticism of SL
children are considered "passive recipients" of environmental influences and ignore how kids think about gender
criticism of cognitive
de-emphasizing the role of the world (especially culture)
trans/cross sex play/binary
is non conformity genetic?
moderately, found biological factors
what could genes for play as a child also code for?